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Olavi Kurina & Pierre-Nicolas LIBERT

Contribution to the knowledge of entomofauna of a Belgian Famenne village : V. Fungus gnats (Diptera: Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae)

(Volume 73 (2020))
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Résumé

La composition faunistique des Sciaroidea (Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae) d’un village de Famenne belge a été étudiée sur base d’un matériel regroupant 378 spécimens. Un total de 69 espèces ont été identifiées, à savoir une espèce de Bolitophilidae, une espèce de Diadocidiidae, une espèce de Ditomyiidae, 6 espèces de Keroplatidae et 60 espèces de Mycetophilidae. 11 espèces de Mycetophilidae sont nouvelles pour la Belgique: Mycomya (Mycomya) tumida (Winnertz 1863), Acnemia angusta Zaitzev 1982, Sciophila thoracica Stæger 1840. Docosia fuscipes (von Roser 1840), Brachypeza (Brachypeza) armata Winnertz 1863, Pseudexechia tuomikoskii Kjærandsen 2009, Epicypta fumigata (Dziedzicki 1923), Mycetophila mohilevensis Dziedzicki 1884, Mycetophila perpallida Chandler 1993, Mycetophila uninotata Zetterstedt 1852, Zygomyia pseudohumeralis Caspers 1980. Le genre Pseudexechia Tuomikoski est également cité pour la première fois en Belgique.

Mots-clés : Belgique, Diptera, distribution, faunistique, nouvelles occurrences, Sciaroidea

Abstract

The composition of fungus gnats (Sciaroidea : Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae) in a village of Belgian Famenne have been studied based on material of 378 specimens. Altogether 69 species are recorded, viz. one species of Bolitophilidae, one species of Diadocidiidae, one species of Ditomyiidae, six species of Keroplatidae and 60 species of Mycetophilidae. Eleven species of Mycetophilidae are recorded from Belgium for the first time: Mycomya (Mycomya) tumida (Winnertz 1863), Acnemia angusta Zaitzev 1982, Sciophila thoracica Stæger 1840. Docosia fuscipes (von Roser 1840), Brachypeza (Brachypeza) armata Winnertz 1863, Pseudexechia tuomikoskii Kjærandsen 2009, Epicypta fumigata (Dziedzicki 1923), Mycetophila mohilevensis Dziedzicki 1884, Mycetophila perpallida Chandler 1993, Mycetophila uninotata Zetterstedt 1852, Zygomyia pseudohumeralis Caspers 1980. Provided data represent also the first record of the genus Pseudexechia Tuomikoski in Belgium.

Keywords : Belgium, Diptera, distribution, faunistics, fungus gnats, new records, Sciaroidea

INTRODUCTION

1The superfamily Sciaroidea of Diptera comprises eight families (and incertae sedis group; Ševčík et al., 2016a), six of which can be grouped to a common name ‘fungus gnats’. Five families of them occur in Europe, viz. Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae. They are small to medium sized nematocerous flies preferring shady and humid habitats, especially those in the forests. At larval stage, majority of the species with known biology inhabit fungal fruiting bodies, both epigeal and wood growing fungi. There are more than 1,200 species of fungus gnats, of which about 970 species belong to Mycetophilidae, recorded in Europe (Chandler, 2005). A summary of the study history of fungus gnats in Belgium is presented by Kurina & Grootaert (2016). Up to the present, 295 species are recorded from Belgium, including 10 species of Bolitophilidae, 2 species of Diadocidiidae, 2 species of Ditomyiidae, 41 species of Keroplatidae and 240 species of Mycetophilidae (Chandler, 2005; Kurina & Grootaert, 2016, Kurina & Chandler, 2018). In comparison with the neighbouring countries, there are 303 species known from the Netherlands (Beuk, 2001, 2015, 2018), 535 from France mainland (Bouchard & Bouchard-Madrelle, 2010; Chandler, 2005, 2015, 2020b; Gibbs, 2009; Kjærandsen, 2009; Papp & Ševčík, 2007; Plassmann, 2010; Ševčík & Laštovka, 2008; Withers, 2007, 2014), 673 from Germany and only 6 species from Luxembourg (Chandler, 2005). In the British Isles, there are 570 species of fungus gnats recorded (Chandler, 2020a, 2020b).

2In the current paper we provide results of fungus gnats collected in Somal, a village of Famenne, a natural region in Southern Belgium (Figure 1). The studied territory is about 9 km², centered on the hamlet of Somal. It covers the places called „La Chavée“ and „La Foulerie“ in the north-west, „Campagne de Somal“ et „Bois des Aloux“ in the north, „Moulin de Leuze“ in the north-east, the „Château de Ramezée“ in the west, the „Bois des Avennes“ in the south-west, the village „Moressée“ in the south and „Bon Bonî“ in the south-east (IGNB, 1981).

Image 100000000000022000000185A6E05ADF52250D8B.jpg

Figure 1 : Location map of the village of Somal (background map :©IGN).

MATERIAL and METHODS

3All the specimens underpinning this study were collected either by sweep netting or with a Malaise trap from 2012 to 2019. The Malaise trap was installed, during the year 2019, in a meadow owned by the second author at the edge of a forest (Figure 2).

4Two particular habitats were collected by sweep netting:

  • Ivy flowers (Hedera helix) which are blooming very late in the season (October-November);

  • Steep damp overhanging banks of a forest path, between the roots of the trees (Figure 3) particularly in April-May.

Image 10000201000001BA00000150C9D5A730D2E19BF7.png

Figure 2 : Malaise trap installed in a meadow at the edge of a forest. (©LIBERT P.-N.)

Image 10000201000001BA0000014FCE0E3663FE12DB94.png

Figure 3 : Steep damp overhanging banks of a forest path. (© LIBERT P.-N.)

5This last habitat was mentioned as interesting by Hutson et al. (1980).

6All collected fungus gnat specimens were glued to a card point (Figure 4), pinned and thereafter identified using a stereomicroscope Leica S8APO. In many cases, the detailed study of male terminalia was unavoidable for species-level identification. For that, the terminalia were detached and treated in a solution of hot KOH for maceration, followed by washing in distilled water. The remaining chitinous parts were inserted into glycerine and examined. Finally, the terminalia were preserved as glycerine preparations in small polyethylene micro-vials attached to the same pin as the rest of the specimen (see also e.g. Kurina, 2006). The exact label data are referred to for each specimen in the material examined section. The material is deposited mainly in the second author’s private collection, while a few specimens are deposited in the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences [former Institute of Zoology and Botany], Tartu, Estonia (IZBE).

Image 10000201000001BE00000150F0590BD0CEFEC19D.png

Figure 4 : Pseudexechia tuomikoskii Kjaerandsen 2009, female A, habitus, lateral view; B, terminalia, lateral view. (© KURINA.O.)

RESULTS

7Altogether 378 specimens of fungus gnats were studied but 128 female specimens were determined to the genus level only and are not included to the following list of species. The rest of the specimens (228 males and 22 females) were determined to 69 species, viz. one species (1 ♂) of Bolitophilidae, one species (2 ♂♂) of Diadocidiidae, one species (1 ♀) of Ditomyiidae, six species (18 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀) of Keroplatidae and 60 species (207 ♂♂ 16 ♀♀) of Mycetophilidae. Eleven species, which are indicated as “Belg. sp. nov.“, were found from Belgium for the first time and their distribution, systematics and biology are briefly discussed. The recent paper about fungus gnats of Botanical garden Jean Massart in Brussels (Kurina & Grootaert, 2016) had described new species occurrences from Belgium for which the presence of some of them is confirmed here. Those nine species are preceded by an asterisk (*). The subfamily-level classification is applied according to Chandler (2005) and Kaspřák et al. (2019). The complete list of the species captured in Somal is summarized in table 1 at the end of the note.

MATERIAL EXAMINED

8Bolitophilidae

91. Bolitophila (Bolitophila) cinerea Meigen 1818

10Material : Somal, 22.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

11Diadocidiidae

122. Diadocidia (Diadocidia) ferruginosa (Meigen 1830)

13Material : Somal, 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 16–27.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

14Ditomyiidae

153. Symmerus annulatus (Meigen 1830)

16Material : Somal, 4.vi.2018, 1♀, on a window inside a house.

17Keroplatidae

18Macrocerinae

194. Macrocera stigma Curtis 1837

20Material : Somal, 9.vi.2014, 1♂, on a window inside a house; 1.vi.2017, 1♀, same as previous.

215. Macrocera vittata Meigen 1830

22Material : Somal, 15.vi.2010, 1♂, on a window inside a house.

23Keroplatinae

246. Keroplatus testaceus Dalman 1818

25Material : Somal, 10.viii.2017, 1♂, on Angelica sylvestris flowers, wet meadow; 3.ix.2017, 1♂, on herbaceous vegetation, forest path.

267. Orfelia nemoralis (Meigen 1818)

27Material : Somal, 30.v.2018, 1♂, on a window inside a house; 1-3.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 4-15.v.2019, 4♂♂, same as previous; 16-27.v.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous.

288. Platyura marginata Meigen 1804

29Material : Somal, 10.v.2015, 1♂, sweep netted in a meadow with Heracleum sphondylium; 2.vi.2015, 1♂, on dried Polyporus squamosus on blasted Acer sp.; 4.vi.2015, 1♀, on Quercus sp., forest path, in the sun; 5.vi.2017, 1♂, on herbaceous vegetation (Juncus, Iris, etc.), edge of a pond; 16.v.2018, 1♀, on leaves, in the sun, forest path; 16-27.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

309. Urytalpa dorsalis (Staeger 1840)

31Material : Somal, 18.v.2008, 1♂, sweep netted on Quercus robur, garden; 16-27.v.2019, 1♂ 1♀, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

32Mycetophilidae

33Mycomyinae

3410. Mycomya (Mycomya) marginata (Meigen 1818)

35Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 30.iv.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

3611. Mycomya (Mycomya) tenuis (Walker 1856)

37Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

3812. Mycomya (Mycomya) tumida (Winnertz 1863) Belg. sp. nov.

39Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 2♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 7-14.iv.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

40Remarks : A Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe, recorded also from neighbouring countries except Luxembourg (Chandler, 2005). The larvae have been found on fruit bodies of Trametes versicolor (Plachter, 1979). Some specimens have also been reared from larvae found in winter (Väisänen, 1984).

41Sciophilinae

4213. Acnemia angusta Zaitzev 1982 Belg. sp. nov.

43Material : Somal, 1-3.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

44Remarks : A not common European species with rather scattered distribution. Described from Northwestern part of European Russia (Zaitzev, 1982) the species has subsequently been recorded from Russian Karelia, Finland, Sweden and Bulgaria (Chandler, 2005; Kjærandsen, 2015). Not recorded from neighbouring countries (Chandler, 2005). Kjærandsen et al. (2007) characterized the species as possibly boreal-mountainous but the current record suggests a wider distribution. However, some earlier records may be overlooked because the species can be reliably distinguished only by details of the male terminalia. According to Jakovlev et al. (2008), the larval microhabitat in southern Sweden has been described as wood growing fungi in deciduous forest.

4514. Sciophila thoracica Stæger 1840 Belg. sp. nov.

46Material : Somal, 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

47Remarks : A Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe, from neighbouring countries recorded from Germany and France (Chandler, 2005). At larval stage, the species is known to be associated with the fruit bodies of Suillus luteus (Khalidov, 1984).

48Gnoristinae

4915. Apolephthisa subincana (Curtis 1837)

50Material : Somal, 2.iv.2012, 1♀, settled on a pile of wood, garden.

5116. Boletina gripha Dziedzicki 1885

52Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 2♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 7.v.2018, 1♂, same as previous; 25-31.iii.2019, 2♂♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 1–6.iv.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 7-17.iv.2019, 5♂♂, same as previous; 18-21.iv.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 1-3.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous; 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous; 16-27.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

53*17. Boletina nitida Grzegorzek 1885

54Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

55*18. Boletina sciarina Stæger 1840

56Material : Somal, 1-3.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

5719. Coelosia fusca Bezzi 1892

58Material : Somal, 6-18.iii.2019, 2♂♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 19-24.iii.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

5920. Docosia fuscipes (von Roser 1840) Belg. sp. nov.

60Material : Somal, 10.iv.2017, 1♀, on a window inside a house; 22.v.2018, 1♀, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 19-24.iii.2019, 2♂♂ 1♀, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 25-31.iii.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 1-6.iv.2019, 3♂♂, same as previous; 7-14.iv.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 23-30.iv.2019, 2♀♀, same as previous; 1-3.v.2019, 1♀, same as previous; 4-15.v.2019, 3♀♀, 1♂, same as previous.

61Remarks : A western Palaearctic species with rather scattered distribution in Europe, recorded also from Germany and the Netherlands but not found in Luxembourg and France (Chandler 2005; Kjærandsen, 2015). Biology unknown.

6221. Docosia gilvipes (Haliday in Walker 1856)

63Material : Somal, 6-18.iii.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 25–31.iii.2019, 1♂, same as previous; 1-6.iv.2019, 1♂, same as previous; 7-17.iv.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

6422. Ectrepesthoneura hirta (Winnertz 1846)

65Material : Somal, 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

6623. Tetragoneura sylvatica (Curtis 1837)

67Material : Somal, 4-15.v.2019, 3♂♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

68Leiinae

69*24. Greenomyia mongolica Laštovka & Matile 1974

70Material : Somal, 10.x.2014, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, in the sun, garden; 17.xi.2014, 1♂1♀, same as previous; 10.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

71*25. Megophthalmidia crassicornis (Curtis 1837)

72Material : Somal, 26.v.2017, 1♂, sweep netted in a meadow with Ranunculus acris; 9.ix.2017, 1♀, on Angelica sylvestris flowers, meadow.

73Mycetophilinae

7426. Allodia (Allodia) lugens (Wiedemann 1817)

75Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 30.x.2017, 2♂♂, same as previous; 30.iv.2019, 7♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

7627. Allodia (Allodia) ornaticollis (Meigen 1818)

77Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 6♂♂, same as previous.

7828. Allodiopsis rustica (Edwards 1941)

79Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

8029. Brachypeza (Brachypeza) armata Winnertz 1863 Belg. sp. nov.

81Material : Somal, 10.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

82Remarks : A Palearctic species, mainly northwesterly in Europe (Kjærandsen et al., 2007; Chandler, 2005), from neighbouring countries recorded only from Germany (Chandler, 2005). According to Ševčík (2010), all species of Brachypeza are oligophagous, restricted to fruit bodies of mainly Pleurotus spp.

8330. Brevicornu griseicolle (Stæger 1840)

84Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

8531. Brevicornu sericoma (Meigen 1830)

86Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous.

8732. Cordyla crassicornis Meigen 1818

88Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 4♂♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 3♂♂, same as previous; 19-24.iii.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 25-31.iii.2019, 1♂, same as previous; 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

8933. Cordyla murina Winnertz 1863

90Material : Somal, 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest.

91*34. Exechia cincta Winnertz 1863

92Material : Somal, 10.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 25.x.2017, 3♂♂, same as previous.

9335. Exechia contaminata Winnertz 1863

94Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 2♂♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

9536. Exechia dorsalis (Stæger 1840)

96Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 2♂♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

9737. Exechia fusca (Meigen 1804)

98Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 15.ii.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods; 30.iv.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 7-17.iv.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 16-27.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

9938. Exechia nigroscutellata Landrock 1912

100Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 2♂♂, same as previous.

10139. Exechia seriata (Meigen 1830)

102Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous.

103*40. Exechia spinuligera Lundstrom 1912

104Material : Somal, 10.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous; 12.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous.

10541. Pseudexechia tuomikoskii Kjærandsen 2009 Belg. sp. nov. (Figure 4)

106Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 1♀, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous.

107Remarks : A recently described species, so far recorded only from Europe: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Great-Britain, Slovakia and probably from France (Kjærandsen, 2009; Ševčík & Kurina, 2011). Biology unknown but an allied congener – Pseudexechia trisignata (Edwards 1913) – has been reared from Naucoria sp. and Galerina sp. (Chandler, 1993). Very similar to P. trisignata and to P. pectinacea (Ostroverkhova 1979) and can reliably be distinguished in details of male and female terminalia. Kjærandsen (2009) revised European species of the genus and provided also figures of female terminalia that allowed association of the studied female specimen (Figure 4). This is the first record of a Pseudexechia Tuomikoski species from Belgium.

10842. Pseudobrachypeza helvetica (Walker 1856)

109Material : Somal, 7.v.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

11043. Tarnania nemoralis (Edwards 1941)

111Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

11244. Epicypta fumigata (Dziedzicki 1923) Belg. sp. nov.

113Material : Somal, 7.v.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

114Remarks : A not common Palearctic species, in Europe recorded from Fennoscandia (Sweden, Finland and Russian Karelia), Great Britain, Switzerland and Austria but not from neighbouring countries of Belgium (Chandler, 2005, 2020; Kjærandsen, 2015). Biology is unknown but the larvae of a congener – E. aterrima (Zetterstedt 1852) – are found on the surface of rotting wood (Zaitzev, 2003).

115*45. Mycetophila britannica Laštovka & Kidd 1975

116Material : Somal, 2.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 12.xi.2017, 3♂♂, same as previous; 22.iv.2018, 2♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

11746. Mycetophila curviseta Lundstrom 1911

118Material : Somal, 12.xi.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

11947. Mycetophila edwardsi Lundstrom 1913

120Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

12148. Mycetophila formosa Lundstrom 1911

122Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 30.iv.2019, 5♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

12349. Mycetophila mohilevensis Dziedzicki 1884 Belg. sp. nov.

124Material : Somal, 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

125Remarks : A rare Palearctic species, in Europe recorded from Fennoscandia (Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russian Karelia), Belarus, Great Britain and Germany (Chandler, 2005; Kjærandsen, 2015). Ševčík (2010) reared the species from Tyromyces chioneus which is the only record on its biology.

12650. Mycetophila ocellus Walker 1848

127Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 2♂♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 15.ii.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods; 30.iv.2019, 4♂♂, same as previous.

12851. Mycetophila perpallida Chandler 1993 Belg. sp. nov.

129Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 1♂ 2♀♀, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 7.v.2018, 2♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods; 1-3.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 4-15.v.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 16-27.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

130Remarks : A Western Palaearctic species, recorded also from all neighbouring countries of Belgium (Chandler, 2005). Very close to one of the most frequent fungus gnat species, M. fungorum (De Geer 1776), from which it can be distinguished only by details of the male terminalia. At larval stage, the species is known to be associated with the fruit bodies of epigeal fungi (Jakovlev et al., 2008).

13152. Mycetophila pumila Winnertz 1863

132Material : Somal, 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

13353. Mycetophila rudis Winnertz 1863

134Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

13554. Mycetophila ruficollis Meigen 1818

136Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 2♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 7.v.2018, 1♂, same as previous; 30.v.2018, 1♂, on a window inside a house.

137*55. Mycetophila signatoides Dziedzicki 1884

138Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 12.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous.

13956. Mycetophila unicolor Stannius 1831

140Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 2.xi.2017, 2♂♂, same as previous.

14157. Mycetophila uninotata Zetterstedt 1852 Belg. sp. nov.

142Material : Somal, 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

143Remarks : A Palaearctic species, widely distributed in Central and Northern Europe including neighbouring countries except Luxembourg (Chandler, 2005). It has been reared from fruit bodies of Collybia, Cortinarius and Lactarius (Yakovlev, 1994). By molecular data M. uninotata has been observed to include cryptic species (Jürgenstein et al., 2015).

14458. Phronia basalis Winnertz 1863

145Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 19-24.iii.2019, 2♂♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 25-31.iii.2019, 2♂♂, same as previous; 1-6.iv.2019, 3♂♂, same as previous; 7-17.iv.2019, 3♂♂, same as previous; 23-30.iv.2019, 1♂, same as previous; 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous;

14659. Phronia biarcuata (Becker 1908)

147Material : Somal, 25.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 30.iv.2019, 18♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

14860. Phronia cinerascens Winnertz 1863

149Material : Somal, 30.iv.2019, 3♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

15061. Phronia conformis (Walker 1856)

151Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

15262. Phronia forcipata Winnertz 1863

153Material : Somal, 22.iv.2018, 2♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon; 7.v.2018, 1♂, same as previous.

15463. Phronia humeralis Winnertz 1863

155Material : Somal, 30.x.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 12.xi.2017, 1♂, same as previous; 30.iv.2019, 3♂♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

15664. Phronia nitidiventris (van der Wulp 1859)

157Material : Somal, 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

158*65. Phronia notata Dziedzicki 1889

159Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

16066. Trichonta submaculata (Stæger 1840)

161Material : Somal, 7.v.2018, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods, Bois de Failon.

16267. Zygomyia pseudohumeralis Caspers 1980 Belg. sp. nov.

163Material : Somal, 4-15.v.2019, 1♂, Malaise trap in a meadow at the edge of a forest; 16-27.v.2019, 1♂, same as previous.

164Remarks : A Palaearctic species, widely distributed in Europe, recorded also from neighbouring countries except Luxembourg (Chandler, 2005; Kjærandsen, 2015). According to Jakovlev et al. (2008), at larval stage associated with wood growing fungi.

16568. Zygomyia valida Winnertz 1863

166Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 1♂, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden; 30.iv.2019, 1♂, flying around steep damp overhanging banks in woods.

16769. Zygomyia vara (Stæger 1840)

168Material : Somal, 2.xi.2017, 1♂ 1♀, on ivy (Hedera helix) flowers, garden.

Table 1 : Checklist of the fungus gnats (Diptera : Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae) collected in Somal. New occurences from Belgium are followed by the symbol “**”.

Family

Subfamily

Species

1

Bolitophilidae

Bolitophila (Bolitophila) cinerea Meigen 1818

2

Diadocidiidae

Diadocidia (Diadocidia) ferruginosa (Meigen 1830)

3

Ditomyiidae

Symmerus annulatus (Meigen 1830)

4

Keroplatidae

Macrocerinae

Macrocera stigma Curtis 1837

5

Macrocera vittata Meigen 1830

6

Keroplatinae

Keroplatus testaceus Dalman 1818

7

Orfelia nemoralis (Meigen 1818)

8

Platyura marginata Meigen 1804

9

Urytalpa dorsalis (Staeger 1840)

10

Mycetophilidae

Mycomyinae

Mycomya (Mycomya) marginata (Meigen 1818)

11

Mycomya (Mycomya) tenuis (Walker 1856)

12

Mycomya (Mycomya) tumida (Winnertz 1863)**

13

Sciophilinae

Acnemia angusta Zaitzev 1982**

14

Sciophila thoracica Stæger 1840**

15

Gnoristinae

Apolephthisa subincana (Curtis 1837)

16

Boletina gripha Dziedzicki 1885

17

Boletina nitida Grzegorzek 1885

18

Boletina sciarina Stæger 1840

19

Coelosia fusca Bezzi 1892

20

Docosia fuscipes (von Roser 1840)**

21

Docosia gilvipes (Haliday in Walker 1856)

22

Ectrepesthoneura hirta (Winnertz 1846)

23

Tetragoneura sylvatica (Curtis 1837)

24

Leiinae

Greenomyia mongolica Laštovka & Matile 1974

25

Megophthalmidia crassicornis (Curtis 1837)

26

Mycetophilinae

Allodia (Allodia) lugens (Wiedemann 1817)

27

Allodia (Allodia) ornaticollis (Meigen 1818)

28

Allodiopsis rustica (Edwards 1941)

29

Brachypeza (Brachypeza) armata Winnertz 1863**

30

Brevicornu griseicolle (Stæger 1840)

31

Brevicornu sericoma (Meigen 1830)

32

Cordyla crassicornis Meigen 1818

33

Cordyla murina Winnertz 1863

34

Exechia cincta Winnertz 1863

35

Exechia contaminata Winnertz 1863

36

Exechia dorsalis (Stæger 1840)

37

Exechia fusca (Meigen 1804)

38

Exechia nigroscutellata Landrock 1912

39

Exechia seriata (Meigen 1830)

40

Exechia spinuligera Lundstrom 1912

41

Pseudexechia tuomikoskii Kjærandsen 2009**

42

Pseudobrachypeza helvetica (Walker 1856)

43

Tarnania nemoralis (Edwards 1941)

44

Epicypta fumigata (Dziedzicki 1923)**

45

Mycetophila britannica Laštovka & Kidd 1975

46

Mycetophila curviseta Lundstrom 1911

47

Mycetophila edwardsi Lundstrom 1913

48

Mycetophila formosa Lundstrom 1911

49

Mycetophila mohilevensis Dziedzicki 1884**

50

Mycetophila ocellus Walker 1848

51

Mycetophila perpallida Chandler 1993**

52

Mycetophila pumila Winnertz 1863

53

Mycetophila rudis Winnertz 1863

54

Mycetophila ruficollis Meigen 1818

55

Mycetophila signatoides Dziedzicki 1884

56

Mycetophila unicolor Stannius 1831

57

Mycetophila uninotata Zetterstedt 1852**

58

Phronia basalis Winnertz 1863

59

Phronia biarcuata (Becker 1908)

60

Phronia cinerascens Winnertz 1863

61

Phronia conformis (Walker 1856)

62

Phronia forcipata Winnertz 1863

63

Phronia humeralis Winnertz 1863

64

Phronia nitidiventris (van der Wulp 1859)

65

Phronia notata Dziedzicki 1889

66

Trichonta submaculata (Stæger 1840

67

Zygomyia pseudohumeralis Caspers 1980**

68

Zygomyia valida Winnertz 1863

69

Zygomyia vara (Stæger 1840)

DISCUSSION

169The European fungus gnats’fauna is relatively well known compared to that of other regions. However, even in Europe, new species are described almost in every year (‘e.g Kurina et al., 2015; Ševčík et al., 2016b; Salmela & Kolcsár, 2017) and there are still several neglected areas with the minimal data of species composition available. In terms of fungus gnats, one of the best studied area in Europe is the Scandinavian Peninsula with more than 920 species known up to date and tens awaiting descriptions (Kjærandsen, 2015; Kjærandsen et al., 2007). The 306 species, currently known from Belgium represent no more than two thirds (probably less) of the real species diversity. Five out of eleven species recorded newly from Belgium are widely distributed and common in Europe.

170Six species, viz. Acnemia angusta, Docosia fuscipes, Brachypeza (B.) armata, Pseudexechia tuomikoskii, Epicypta fumigata and Mycetophila mohilevensis are considerably rare and/or have a rather scattered distribution in Europe. However, that may be caused by insufficient collecting and study effort. As these species can reliably be identified only according to the male/female terminalia, at least some of them are probably confused with allied congeners in several earlkier studies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

171Olavi Kurina was partially funded by institutional research funding (IUT21-1) of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research. We also thank Professor Frédéric Francis (University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech) for the loan of the Malaise trap used in this study. We are much obliged to Peter Chandler (Melksham, UK) for his comments on the manuscript.

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Para citar este artículo

Olavi Kurina & Pierre-Nicolas LIBERT, «Contribution to the knowledge of entomofauna of a Belgian Famenne village : V. Fungus gnats (Diptera: Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Mycetophilidae)», Entomologie faunistique - Faunistic Entomology [En ligne], Volume 73 (2020), URL : https://popups.uliege.be/2030-6318/index.php?id=4948.

Acerca de: Olavi Kurina

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi st 5D, 51006 Tartu, Estonia. E-mail: olavi.kurina@emu.ee

Acerca de: Pierre-Nicolas LIBERT

University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Department of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Passage des Déportés 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium. E-mail: pierrenicolas.libert@spw.wallonie.beCorresponding author