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Emmanuël SÉRUSIAUX, Paul DIEDERICH, Damien ERTZ & Pieter VAN DEN BOOM

NEW OR INTERESTING LICHENS AND LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI FROM BELGIUM, LUXEMBOURG AND NORTHERN FRANCE. IX

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Résumé

Résumé : Lichens et champignons lichénicoles nouveaux ou intéressants pour la flore de la Belgique, du Luxembourg et du nord de la France. IX.

Avec l’extension du territoire étudié dans la checklist des lichens et des champignons lichénicoles de Belgique et du Luxembourg (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000) aux districts boulonnais et picard dans le NW de la France, et avec les résultats présentés dans cet article, la liste des espèces présentes dans ce territoire comprend maintenant 1214 taxons acceptés. 39 espèces de lichens et de champignons lichénicoles sont nouvelles pour le territoire étudié: Abrothallus caerulescens, A. cladoniae, Agonimia gelatinosa, Arthonia digitatae, Bagliettoa parmigerella, Bryoria capillaris, Celothelium ischnobelum, Cladonia cyathomorpha, Dinemasporium strigosum, Epigloea renitens, Intralichen baccisporus, Kalaallia reactiva, Lasiosphaeriopsis salisburyi, Lecanactis dilleniana, Lecanora leuckertiana, L. zosterae, Lecidea siderolithica, Leiorreuma lyellii, Neolamya peltigerae, Opegrapha gyrocarpa, Parmelia ernstiae, Peltigera extenuata, P. monticola, Phacopsis fusca, Polydesmia lichenis, Pronectria oligospora var. octospora, P. pertusariicola, Ramonia interjecta, Rimularia insularis, Roselliniella atlantica, Stigmidium aggregatum, S. mycobilimbiae, S. peltideae, Trichonectria anisospora, Unguiculariopsis thallophila, Verrucaria elaeina, V. hegetschweileri, V. papillosa et Xanthoria ulophyllodes, tandis que la présence de Clauzadea chondrodes, Endocarpon adscendens, Epilichen scabrosus et Paranectria oropensis est confirmée. Bryoria implexa, Cliostomum corrugatum, Phacopsis oxyspora, Rhizocarpon plicatile et Vouauxiella verrucosa doivent être supprimés de cette flore. De nouvelles données sont présentées pour des espèces rares ou méconnues, et des informations complémentaires sur la taxonomie adoptée aujourd’hui sont données pour plusieurs taxons. Deux combinaisons nouvelles sont proposées: Tremella caloplacae (bas. Lindauopsis caloplacae) et Trichonectria anisospora (bas. Nectriella anisospora). Un néotype est choisi pour Epicladonia stenospora.

Abstract

Abstract

With the extension of the area covered by the checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Belgium and Luxembourg (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000) to the Boulogne and Picardy districts in NW France, and together with the results presented in this paper, the list of species present in that area now includes 1214 accepted taxa. 39 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are new records for the study area: Abrothallus caerulescens, A. cladoniae, Agonimia gelatinosa, Arthonia digitatae, Bagliettoa parmigerella, Bryoria capillaris, Celothelium ischnobelum, Cladonia cyathomorpha, Dinemasporium strigosum, Epigloea renitens, Intralichen baccisporus, Kalaallia reactiva, Lasiosphaeriopsis salisburyi, Lecanactis dilleniana, Lecanora leuckertiana, L. zosterae, Lecidea siderolithica, Leiorreuma lyellii, Neolamya peltigerae, Opegrapha gyrocarpa, Parmelia ernstiae, Peltigera extenuata, P. monticola, Phacopsis fusca, Polydesmia lichenis, Pronectria oligospora var. octospora, P. pertusariicola, Ramonia interjecta, Rimularia insularis, Roselliniella atlantica, Stigmidium aggregatum, S. mycobilimbiae, S. peltideae, Trichonectria anisospora, Unguiculariopsis thallophila, Verrucaria elaeina, V. hegetschweileri, V. papillosa and Xanthoria ulophyllodes, whilst the presence in that area is confirmed for Clauzadea chondrodes, Endocarpon adscendens, Epilichen scabrosus and Paranectria oropensis. Bryoria implexa, Cliostomum corrugatum, Phacopsis oxyspora, Rhizocarpon plicatile and Vouauxiella verrucosa have to be deleted from that flora. New data are presented for rare or overlooked species, and further information on the nomenclature or taxonomy now adopted is given for several taxa. Two new combinations are proposed: Tremella caloplacae (bas. Lindauopsis caloplacae) and Trichonectria anisospora (bas. Nectriella anisospora). A neotype is chosen for Epicladonia stenospora.


1INTRODUCTION

2This paper continues the series of notes on the flora of lichens and their lichenicolous fungi in Belgium and Luxembourg (SÉRUSIAUX et al., 1999) and thus provides further additions or changes to the checklist of the species present in that area (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000). It includes a summary of the recent literature pertinent to the species present, incl. that pertaining to taxonomic or nomenclature changes for the species concerned, and the results obtained on previously overlooked collections and recently collected material. Under the enumeration of specimens, (h) denotes the private herbarium of the collector. Other abbreviations and symbols are the same as those used by DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX (2000): * denotes a lichenicolous fungus, (*) a lichenicolous lichen, + a non-lichenized and non-lichenicolous fungus; B, L and F denote the countries Belgium, Luxembourg and France respectively; Ard., Lorr., Mosan, etc. denote the phytogeographical districts.

3Subsequently to an extensive study of the lichen flora of the ‘Boulonnais’ in northern France (SPARRIUS et al., 2002), the authors of the Checklist (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000) decided to expand the study area of this checklist to the Boulogne and Picardy districts, entirely including the departments Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Somme in France. In a recent paper, TOUSSAINT et al. (2002) redefined the borders of the Boulogne, Picardy and Brabant districts in northern France, and we follow this new subdivision strictly.

4RECENT LITERATURE PERTINENT TO THE STUDY AREA

5Since the previous paper published in this series (SÉRUSIAUX et al., 1999) and the publication of the checklist (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000), the following contributions to the lichen and lichenicolous flora of the study area or relevant to their taxonomic status have been published:

6. MARBACH (2000) revises the tropical and subtropical Buellia s. l. species and accepts a much narrower genus concept with 13 distinct genera. As long as the phylogeny of the European members of the genus has not been critically reexamined, we prefer to continue to treat the genus in its broad sense, including Amandinea and other recent segregates.

7. APTROOT et al. (2001a) distinguish the new species Cladonia monomorpha Aptroot, Sipman & van Herk in the C. pyxidata aggregate and report the species from several localities in Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France. It is mostly found on acid soil and siliceous rocks. Further attention should thus be paid to this group of species in the study area to assess their ecology and local distribution.

8. APTROOT et al. (2001b) investigate the occurrence of several recently described species from the Netherlands in adjacent countries, incl. part of the area dealt with in this paper. They report the following as new for Luxembourg: Bacidia (syn.: Bacidina) neosquamulosa, Placopyrenium trachyticum, Verrucaria macrostoma, and Verrucaria ochrostoma (however, the latter three were already known from that country; see DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 144, 173 & 174). They also strongly suggest that the material called Lecidella conspurcatosorediosa (Harm.) Diederich is merely a corticolous form of the more widespread and saxicolous L. scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert.

9. Although it has no major significance for the list of species found in the area of study, the paper by GEEBELEN & HOFFMANN (2001) is worth mentioning as their evaluation of bio-indication methods using epiphytes by correlating with SO2-pollution parameters is based on studies in the northern part of Belgium.

10. The most outstanding checklist of the lichens of Austria (HAFELLNER & TÜRK, 2001) introduces important nomenclatural changes, as well as the assignment of many species to new genera. The following are relevant for the area dealt with in this paper: Mycobilimbia epixanthoides (Nyl.) Vitik. et al. (syn.: Biatora epixanthoides), M. lurida (Ach.) Hafellner & Türk (syn.: Psora lurida), M. pilularis (Körb.) Hafellner & Türk (syn.: Biatora sphaeroides); Myxobilimbia Hafellner with M. lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner (syn.: Mycobilimbia lobulata) and M. sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner (syn.: Mycobilimbia sabuletorum); Psoroglaena abscondita (Coppins & Vĕzda) Hafellner & Türk (syn.: Macentina abscondita). They use the name Protoparmeliopsis muralis (Schreb.) M. Choisy for the common Lecanora muralis; we find this proposal pre-mature, as a detailed phylogenetic study of the entire genus Lecanora should in our opinion precede any taxonomic changes. The new combination Fuscidea fagicola (Zschacke) Hafellner & Türk is introduced for the corticolous form of F. cyathoides [also known as var. corticola (Fr.) Kalb], but the genuine identity of such populations in our area requires further studies.

11. SANTESSON (2001) has validly published Lichenopeltella hydrophila R. Sant. in his Fungi Lichenicoli Exsiccati n° 319; the type collection originates from the area of study (Luxembourg).

12. SÉRUSIAUX et al. (2001) describe the new corticolous species Fellhanera gyrophorica Sérus., Coppins, Diederich & Scheidegger from several localities of well-preserved forests in Central Europe. It was reported as Fellhanera sp. in DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX (2000: 101). In the study area, it is known from two localities in the Berdorf area in Luxembourg (Lorr. district).

13. In a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the lichenicolous fungi belonging to Hobsonia, Illosporium and Marchandiomyces, SIKAROODI et al. (2001) found that Hobsonia christiansenii B. L. Brady & D. Hawksw. (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 104) must be transferred to the new genus Illosporiopsis D. Hawksw., related to hypocrealean ascomycetes. They also demonstrate that both species of Marchandiomyces reported from the area of study (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 121) form a clade and are genuine basidiomycetes.

14. VAN DEN BOOM & COPPINS (2001) describe the new species Micarea viridileprosa Coppins & van den Boom as a corticolous, lignicolous or terricolous species on acid substrata in western Europe. In the checklist (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 125) it was included in M. prasina Fr. which was said to include two different species. It could be rather widespread in the area of study, at least in the Mosan, Ard. and Lorr. districts. It hosts the lichenicolous ascomycete Nectriopsis micareae Diederich, van den Boom & Ernst, known from the Camp. and Mar. districts.

15. Material of Protoparmelia oleaginea (Harmand) Coppins, collected in 2001 in Belgium (Ard.: Nassogne, J6.28, dupl. in LG) on Quercus by P. van den Boom, was distributed in Vĕzda Lichenes Rariores Exsiccati n° 460. The species is new for the area of study.

16. The proposal to conserve Bacidina Vĕzda against Lichingoldia D. Hawksw. & Poelt and Woessia D. Hawksw. & Poelt has been adopted by the Committee for Fungi (Taxon 50: 269, 2001). It must however be remembered that an older genus name has meanwhile been detected for this group of species, viz. Lopacidia Kalb (KALB et al., 2000: 282). It should also be noted that a detailed phylogenetic study of the Bacidiaceae by EKMAN (2001) demonstrates that most of the species included in Bacidina or Woessia, incl. the type of Woessia, form a clade, whilst B. phacodes, the type of Bacidina, may or may not be included in this group. We suggest that no additional nomenclatural changes should be proposed as long as the monophyly of the entire group has not been proved definitely.

17. COPPINS & VAN DEN BOOM (2002) describe the new Bacidia brandii Coppins & van den Boom, growing on various substrates (ground, brick, lignum and plant debris) and found in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Lithuania.

18. DIEDERICH et al. (2002) describe the new genus and species of lichenicolous coelomycetes Cladoniicola staurospora Diederich, van den Boom & Aptroot, growing on several species of Cladonia, mainly in heathlands. The species is reported from the Mar. district.

19. EKMAN & TØNSBERG (2002) study the phylogeny of Lepraria and Leproloma using molecular sequences. They demonstrate that most species of the two genera form a monophyletic group closely related to Stereocaulon, and that both genera cannot be separated. They furthermore find that Lepraria flavescens belongs to Lecanora (but no nomenclatural change is proposed), and that Botryolepraria lesdainii and L. obtusatica are both not related to Lepraria. In another paper, TØNSBERG (2002) introduces the new name Lepraria flavescens Cl. Roux & Tønsberg for L. flavescens Clauzade & Cl. Roux nom. inval.

20. LEUCKERT et al. (2002) mention Lepraria eburnea from Belgium (Ard. district). This species was previously known from a single Belgian record (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000).

21. MOLINA et al. (2002) use molecular data to demonstrate that Diploicia and Diplotomma form a monophyletic clade and are distinct from other Buellia species. Diplotomma should therefore be treated as a distinct genus. The authors also suggest that Diploicia should be considered as a synonym of Diplotomma; we hesitate to accept this as both genera are monophyletic in the phylogeny proposed by these authors.

22. REDHEAD et al. (2002) describe the new genus Lichenomphalia Redhead et al. to accommodate the lichenized species formerly included in Omphalina. Two species from Belgium and Luxembourg are concerned: L. hudsoniana (H. S. Jenn.) Redhead et al. (syn.: O. hudsoniana) and L. umbellifera (L.: Fr.) Redhead et al. (syn.: O. umbellifera).

23. ROUX & GUEIDAN (2002: 147-148) show that Buellia epipolia auct. and B. venusta (Körb.) Lettau are two distinct species, and that the oldest valid name for B.

24epipolia auct. is Buellia hedinii H. Magn. The populations present in our study area all belong to B. hedinii. The name has not yet been combined in Diplotomma.

25. ROUX et al. (2002) show that Polyblastia deminuta Arnold, known from the Mosan district in Belgium, is a non-lichenized, lichenicolous fungus growing on endolithic, often poorly developed lichens, and that it belongs to the genus Merismatium. They introduce the new combination M. deminutum (Arnold) Cl. Roux & Nav.-Ros.

26. SPARRIUS et al. (2002) have studied in detail the lichen flora of the Boul. district in northern France (LAMBINON et al., 1998; TOUSSAINT et al., 2002), as well as the southern part of the Mar. district and the most north-western parts of the Pic. district. The area covered by the checklist (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000) is expanded to include those areas. The following species are thus reported as new for the area of study: Bacidia laurocerasi, Caloplaca cerinelloides, C. marina, C. microthallina, C. thallincola, Chrysothrix flavovirens, Cladoniicola staurospora (see above), Cliostomum flavidulum, Cryptolechia carneolutea, Didymellopsis collematum, Gyalidea minuta, Lecania atrynoides, Lecanora jamesii, Lichina confinis, Mycomicrothelia confusa, Opegrapha sorediifera, Verrucaria erichsenii, V. halizoa, V. maura and V. sandstedei. They further demonstrate that Cliostomum corrugatum does not occur in the study area.

27. STAIGER (2002) presents a remarkable revision of the Graphidaceae and a more natural genus delimitation. A few species known from our study area are concerned. Graphis britannica Staiger is a new name for Graphina anguina auct. europ. The genus Phaeographis is only partly treated by this author, as a complete treatment is planned to be published separately. Amongst the four species known from the study area, she accepts P. dendritica (type species of the genus) and transfers P. lyellii to Leiorreuma Eschw. as L. lyellii (Sm.) Staiger. Phaeographis smithii and P. inusta are not treated.

28. THÜS (2002) revises the aquatic Verrucaria species from Central Europe. He mentions Verrucaria praetermissa from the Ard. district in Belgium.

29. VANBRUGGHE et al. (2002) report the discovery of Usnea articulata in France, Pas-de-Calais, near Montreuil-sur-Mer (Mar. district, G22.27) in 1996. They furthermore mention an older record of the same species in France, Pas-de-Calais, between Fruges and Créquy (Pic. district, G21.15) in 1972.

30. DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX (2003) describe the new Stromatopogon cladoniae Diederich & Sérus., an extraordinary lichenicolous fungus growing on Cladonia polydactyla in Belgium (Ard. district).

31. DIEDERICH et al. (2003) report the discovery of the teleomorph of Marchandiomyces aurantiacus, for which they introduce the new genus and species name Marchandiobasidium aurantiacum Diederich & Schultheis. The genus is close to Waitea Warcup & P. H. B. Talbot and is tentatively included in the Ceratobasidiales.

32. ERTZ (2003) presents a detailed study of the saxicolous and terricolous lichen flora from 29 selected, calcareous sites from the Belgian Mosan district. A total of 198 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi were recorded, including Collema coccophorum Tuck., new for the study area, and Lempholemma chalazanum (Ach.) B. de Lesd., confirmed for that area.

33. VAN DEN BROEK (2003) presents a lichen inventory of 10 cemeteries near Antwerp. A total of 90 species are recorded, varying from 26 to 67 per cemetery.

34. A re-appraisal of the European members of the Cladonia cervicornis group by VAN HERK & APTROOT (2003) let the authors conclude that the three known taxa, often treated as subspecies of a single species, deserve species rank. These are: Cladonia cervicornis (Ach.) Flot. s. str., C. pulvinata (Sandst.) van Herk & Aptroot and C. verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer.

35RESULTS

36*Abrothallus caerulescens Kotte

37Luxembourg, Ard.: Bourscheid, along road to Ettelbruck, near Michelau (K8.45), W exposed schistose outcrops along road, on Xanthoparmelia conspersa, 10.2002, P. & B. van den Boom 29891 (h).

38The lichenicolous genus Abrothallus is in urgent need of a modern taxonomic revision. As long as no such revision is available, we prefer to call all specimens on Xanthoparmelia A. caerulescens, although we are aware that the delimitation of this species is not yet entirely clear. New for the study area.

39*Abrothallus cladoniae R. Sant. & D. Hawksw.

40Luxembourg, Lorr.: W of Kayl, Monument des mineurs (M8.53), vertical shaded boulder, on Cladonia pyxidata ssp. pocillum, 10.2002, P. & B. van den Boom 29867 (h).

A lichenicolous ascomycete new for the study area.

41Agonimia gelatinosa (Ach.) Brand & Diederich

42France, Mar.: Somme, au NW de St-Valéry-sur-Somme, pointe du Hourdel, à l’E du phare, levée de galets (H22.44), sur sable et mousses recouvrant des galets, 7.2001, P. Diederich 15358 (h); au N d’Ault, à 800 m au NW de la ferme d’Onival, à 200 m de la mer (J22.22), sur de la terre recouvrant des galets, 7.2001, P. Diederich 15278 (h).

43The species grows with other interesting terricolous lichens, like Agonimia globulifera, A. tristicula, A. vouauxii, Toninia sedifolia and Verrucaria bryoctona. It is new for the study area.

44*Arthonia digitatae Hafellner

45Luxembourg: S. loc., on Cladonia subulata, before 1850, F.-A. Tinant 659 (LUX).

46This species was recently described as an aggressive parasite on the squamules of the primary thallus of Cladonia digitata (HAFELLNER, 1999). Our specimen grows on a different host, C. subulata, mainly apically on the podetia, and does not visibly damage the host.

47A short description follows: ascomata blackish, 50-125 μm in diam.; exciple thin and pale; hymenium and hypothecium pale; epihymenium pale, but darkened through the presence of a brown parasitic hyphomycete; pigment K- or more olivaceous or greyish; hymenium K/I+ pale blue, reaction week, possibly due to the age of the specimen; paraphyses short-celled, branched, irregular, almost contorted, 2.5-4.5 μm thick, apically not swollen nor pigmented; asci at least 5-spored, elongate ellipsoid, 21-29 × 8.5-12 μm; ascospores hyaline, becoming pale brownish when overmature, 1-septate, constricted at septum, 10.3-12.5 × 4-4.5 μm.

48Morphologically, our specimen is very similar to the published description of A. digitatae. An alternative could be Lecidea epicladonia Nyl., a poorly known species possibly belonging to Arthonia (ALSTRUP & HAWKSWORTH, 1990). For the moment, we prefer to call our specimen A. digitatae, but we are aware that the discovery of more specimens of Arthonia on different Cladonia species, and a subsequent revision of that material, might lead to a different conclusion.

49Bacidia neosquamulosa Aptroot & van Herk

50Belgium, Fl.: Wilrijk, Kerkhof Steytelinck (C4.36), on Populus, 12.2002, D. Van den Broek (hb Diederich). – Ard.: W of Gedinne, along étang de Boiron (K5.17), on branches of Picea, 5.2000, P. van den Boom 24359 (h); Nassogne, near water-tower (J6.27), square with Fraxinus, 5. 2001, P. van den Boom 26448 (h).

51This species was known from a single locality in B Fl. (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 177) and was also reported from L Lorr. (APTROOT et al., 2001b). It might be rather common and widespread in the area of study, as suggested by the additional collections from B Fl. and Ard.

52Bagliettoa parmigerella (Zahlbr.) Vězda & Poelt

53Belgium, Mosan: Huy, éperon rocheux à l’entrée du vallon du ruisseau de Solières (SE de Bas-Oha) (G6.14), rocher calcaire compact ombragé en sous-bois, 3.2002, D. Ertz 650 (LG).

54Luxembourg, Lorr.: Lasauvage, rocher de tuf calcaire dans le village (M7.48), 9.1999, P. Diederich 13886 (h).

New for the study area.

55Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

56Belgium, Ard.: ‘sur les arbres dans le bois de Sourbrodt’ (G8.25), before 1830, M. A. Libert s. n. (BR, with B. fuscescens); Reinartzhof (F9.35), sur Quercus en futaie, 11.1960, A. Froment s. n. (LG); Petit Bongard, rive droite de la Helle (F8.55), sur Betula pubescens, 7.1969, R. van Hulst s. n. (LG); 10 km SE of Laroche, N of Le Cheslin (J7.25), small Quercus on steep, rocky W-slope, 4.1985, A. M. Brand 14403b (hb Brand).

57The checklist (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 75) reports two species of Bryoria which require examination of relevant material: B. chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. and B. implexa (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. Such material has now been carefully studied, incl. by TLC.

58The material refered to B. implexa actually belongs to B. capillaris. The earlier report of that species from Luxembourg (DIEDERICH, 1986: 118, as B. cf. capillaris) refers to Ramalina thrausta (SÉRUSIAUX et al., 1999: 73-74).

59Bryoria capillaris is a corticolous species, only found in B Ard.; it might be extinct in the area of study, but further exploration of suitable localities might demonstrate that it is still present. New for the study area.

60Bryoria chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

61Belgium, Ard.: ‘à terre parmi les rochers à Bastogne’ (K7.16), 1852, E. Coemans (BR); Kreus im Venn (N de Küchelscheid, à promixité de la frontière allemande) (G8.16), partie humide et moussue de l’escarpement rocheux, 10.1960, J. Lambinon 60/2200b (LG).

62The material previously refered to that species actually belongs to it, and its presence in the study area is thus confirmed.

63This saxicolous species is believed to be extinct in the area of study.

64Buellia ocellata (Flot.) Körb.

65Belgium, Fl.: Moerkerke centre, brick wall along churchyard (C2.14), on brick of wall, 4.2000, P. van den Boom 24281 (h).

66France, Mar.: Somme, au NW de St-Valéry-sur-Somme, pointe du Hourdel, à l’E du phare, levée de galets (H22.44), sur des galets, 7.2001, P. Diederich 15371 (h); ibid., 4.2003, E. Sérusiaux s. n. (LG).

67Netherlands: Noord-Brabant, Middelbeers, churchyard, on tombstone of acid rock, 7.1987, P. van den Boom 5672 (h). – Zeeland, Schouwen, Burgh-Haamstede, brick wall along church, on brick, 5.1988, P. van den Boom 6797 (h).

68Within the study area, this species was known only from one locality in F Mosan, where it occurs on natural siliceous rocks. It was also mentioned from Belgium (DUVIGNEAUD & GILTAY, 1938: 39), but no relevant specimen has been seen. Its presence in Belgium is here confirmed. The species is widely distributed in the Netherlands, and two records close to the Belgian border are mentioned here. In France (Somme), we collected it twice on pebbles near the sea.

69Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin

70Belgium, Ard.: vallée de la Helle, rocher à la Brandehaag (F8.55), 3.1967, P. De Zuttere 67/3468 (LG).

71DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX (2000: 77) say that the species report from B Ard. is based only on litterature and that no specimen is available. A collection found in LG demonstrates that the species was indeed present in that district. It has not been seen recently and may now be extinct.

72Caloplaca granulosa (Müll. Arg.) Jatta

73Belgium, Mosan: Comblain-la-Tour, ‘Thier des Pourcès’ (G7.33), on calcareous rock in a S exposed grassland on the righ side of the Ourthe, 2.2002, D. Ertz (field observation); W of Vieuxville, ruins of château ‘Fort de Logne’ (G7.52), on S exposed old wall, 5.2001, P. van den Boom 26579 (h, LG); Modave, ‘Thier de la Croix’ (G6.36), crête rocheuse calcaire en voie de reboisement spontané, 3.2002, D. Ertz 787 (LG); Han-sur-Lesse, Belvédère (J6.24), dry and S-exposed limestone outcrop with Xerobromion communities, 12.2001, D. Ertz s. n. (LG); NE of Dailly, Gros Tienne du By (J4.47), semishaded calcareous ridge, 3.2002, D. Ertz s. n. (LG).

74The species was formerly known from a single locality in northern France in the Mosan district (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 80). It is new for Belgium, where it might be more common than previously expected.

75Celothelium ischnobelum (Nyl.) Aguirre

76Belgium, Ard.: Warche valley (G8.35), on Corylus, 5.1993, J. Linnert s. n. (hb Aptroot, LG).

77This is a very much unexpected finding as Celothelium ischnobelum is a rare species in Europe and seems to be mostly restricted to atlantic and well-preserved areas. It once again demonstrates the high patrimonial value of the Warche valley and the urgent need for stronger conservation.

78Cladonia cyathomorpha W. Watson

79Belgium, Ard.: WSW of Gedinne, rocher Campa (K5.37), schistose outcrops, 5.2000, P. van den Boom 24402 (h); Willerzie, Rochers de la Marotelle (K5.16), 11.1984, E. Sérusiaux 6692 (LG).

80Luxembourg, Ard.: vallée de la Wark, à 2 km au N de Warken (au NW d’Ettelbruck) (K8.44), sur une paroi subverticale ombragée schisteuse en bord de route, 3.1997, P. Diederich 12462 (LG, h). – Lorr.: s. loc., before 1880, J.-B. Reinhard 678 (LUX); Moesdorf, im Walde beim Scheuerhof (L8.25), zwischen Moosen, 2.1892, J. Feltgen 421 (LUX); Klingelscheuerhof (L8.46), 6.1888, J. Feltgen 422 (LUX); Fischbach, vers Plankenhof, près des étangs (L8.36), dans un talus en bord de route, 11.1980, P. Diederich 3481 (h).

81France, Ard.: Ardennes, SE of Revin, S of Anchamps, rocher des Dames, path along Meuse (K5.33), vertical shaded wet schistose rock, 5.2000, P. van den Boom 24429 (h).

82Quite interestingly, a careful examination of Cladonia collections yielded a further, and rather easy to determine, species in the area of study.

83*Cladoniicola staurospora Diederich, van den Boom & Aptroot

84Belgium, Camp.: Kalmthout, Kalmthoutse Heide, close to the educational center of the nature reserve (B4.27), terricolous in heathland, on Cladonia, 11.2001, P. Diederich 14977 (h); ENE of Zonhoven, nature reserve ‘De Teut’ (D6.38), terricolous in heathland, on C. chlorophaea, 11.2001, P. Diederich 15024 (h).

85Luxembourg, Lorr.: entre Dudelange et Kayl, Haard (M8.54), sur de la terre, sur Cladonia pyxidata ssp. pocillum, 7.2002, P. Diederich 15495 (h), J. Miadlikowska & D. Ertz.

86This lichenicolous coelomycete has just been described from the Netherlands and northern France (DIEDERICH et al., 2002) and is here newly recorded from Belgium and Luxembourg.

87Clauzadea chondrodes (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

88Belgium, Mosan: Yvoir, rocher de Champalle (H5.27), calcareous outcrops, 11.1999 & 12.2001, D. Ertz s. n. & 423 (LG); Comblain-la-Tour, ‘Thier des Pourcès’ (G7.33), on calcareous rock in a S exposed grassland on the righ side of the Ourthe, 2.2002, D. Ertz 504, 504bis (LG); W of Vieuxville, calcareous grassland of Logne (G7.52), on a calcareous rock in a S exposed grassland on the righ side of the Limbrée, 2.2002, D. Ertz 508 (LG); SE of Huccorgne, rocher de la Marquise (F6.54), calcareous rock in a grassland at the top of an outcrop, on the left side of the Mehaigne, 3.2002, D. Ertz s. n. (LG); Han-sur-Lesse, Les Grignaux, W of the Ry d’Ave (J6.34), dry and SE-exposed limestone outcrop, 5.1997, P. Diederich 12753 (h).

89DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX (2000: 92) claim that this species report from Belgium by DUVIGNEAUD & GILTAY (1938) is based only on litterature and that no specimen is available. The above mentioned specimens recently collected demonstrate that the species was probably overlooked or mistaken for other species of Clauzadea. Dr Barbara Meyer kindly checked the identity of two collections.

90Clauzadea cyclisca (A. Massal.) V. Wirth, another taxon reported, but not accepted from the study area (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 92), is considered to be a regeneration form of Clauzadea chondrodes in the recent monograph of the genus by MEYER (2002). Most Belgian specimens partly or entirely represent such regeneration forms.

91*Clypeococcum epicrassum (H. Oliv.) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux

92Belgium, Mosan: Dourbes, roche à Lomme (J5.41), calcareous rock in Xerobromion communities, 2.2002, D. Ertz 443 (LG); Comblain-la-Tour, ‘Thier des Pourcès’ (G7.33), on calcareous rock in a S exposed grassland on the righ side of the Ourthe, 2.2002, D. Ertz 502 (LG).

93This lichenicolous ascomycete was formerly known from a single locality in Belgium in the Lesse valley (VAN DEN BOOM et al., 1999). It has recently been collected in two other localities in the Mosan district on Squamarina cartilaginea.

94*Corticifraga peltigerae (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. & R. Sant.

95Luxembourg, Lorr.: entre Dudelange et Kayl, Haard (M8.54), sur de la terre, sur Peltigera rufescens, 7.2002, P. Diederich 15490 (h), J. Miadlikowska & D. Ertz; W of Kayl, Monument des mineurs (M8.53), on P. rufescens, 10.2002, P. & B. van den Boom 29875 (h).

96Within the study area this species was known only from two old records (< 1880) from B Ard. (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 95). It is new for Luxembourg.

97*Dinemasporium strigosum (Fr.) Sacc.

98Luxembourg, Lorr.: entre Dudelange et Kayl, Haard (M8.54), sur de la terre, sur Peltigera rufescens, 7.2002, P. Diederich 15493 (h), J. Miadlikowska & D. Ertz 2529 (BR); Lorentzweiler, Kiischtebierg (L8.45), dans une lande siliceuse, sur Peltigera hymenina, 11.1983, P. Diederich 3961 (h).

99This is a common coelomycete, mostly, but not exclusively, growing on graminaceous substrates (SUTTON, 1980). The repeated discovery of the fungus on thalli of Peltigera (see also MIADLIKOWSKA & ALSTRUP, 1995) suggests that these populations might represent a distinct, yet undescribed, lichenicolous species. More and richer collections are needed to ascertain this hypothesis. Non-lichenicolous specimens are known from Belgium, e.g.: Belgium, Ard.: Malmedy (G8.43), on Deschampsia flexuosa, s. d., M. A. Libert, Reliquiae Libertianae n°23 (BR). We did not check the Belgian mycological literature to see if the species was already published from this country. In any case, the species must be added to the checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000).

100Endocarpon adscendens (Anzi) Müll.Arg.

101Belgium, Mosan: 2 km N of Villers-sur-Lesse, in front of entrance to Château Royal (J6.13), S exposed mossy slope in ditch, 5.2001, P. van den Boom 26495 (h).

102Both previously known specimens of this species from the study area, preserved in LG, were re-checked and found to represent E. pusillum Hedw. However, a recently collected Belgian specimen proved to be the genuine E. adscendens (identification confirmed by Dr O. Breuss). The presence of this species in the study area is thus established. The species was growing close to Protopannaria pezizoides.

103*Epicladonia stenospora (Harm.) D. Hawksw.

104Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 9: 20 (1981); Aposphaeria stenospora Harm., Lich. Fr. 3: 308 (1907). Type: not indicated in the original account (type lost ? ANGUC–, fide HAWKSWORTH 1981).

105Luxembourg, Lorr.: NW of Steinfort, carrières (L8.51), alt. 320 m, sur de la terre, sur Cladonia furcata subsp. furcata, 1.2000, J. M. Cepeda 46a (LG – neotype, here designated; LUX, UPS, hb Diederich – isoneotypes).

106Belgium, Camp.: ENE of Zonhoven, nature reserve ‘De Teut’ (D6.38), terricolous in heathland, on basal squamules of Cladonia chlorophaea, 11.2001, P. Diederich 15021 (h).

107Following HAWKSWORTH (1981), the type specimen of this species could not be located, and only a single additional specimen from Austria was known to that author. We here select the rather rich Luxembourg collection mentioned above as a neotype. We have furthermore seen material of this species from Austria: F. Berger 6296 (h, hb Diederich), and Lithuania: J. Motiejūnaitė 3733 (BILAS, hb Diederich). HAWKSWORTH (1986) reported it from Scotland.

108In the neotype specimen, the fungus is abundant on the podetia of the host, but does not induce the formation of galls. The pycnidia are 40-80(-120) μm in diam., first immersed, later partly erumpent. The conidia are aseptate or more rarely 1-septate (c. 10% of the conidia observed), hyaline, multiguttulate, always narrower in the middle, 9-10 × 3.5-4 μm; the conidial wall is c. 0.4 μm thick and the basal scar 0.8-1.7 μm. The Austrian specimen studied and described by HAWKSWORTH (1981) has 0(-1)-septate conidia of 7.5-11 × 3-3.5 μm, which are always broader in the middle. Whether these two specimens are conspecific, or that two different species are involved should only be discussed when more and richer specimens are available, allowing a better knowledge of the variability of the conidia. The Belgian specimen cited above has conidia of 7-9 × 2.5-3 μm, which are distinctly broader in the middle, and is thus similar to the Austrian specimen described by HAWKSWORTH.

109Within the study area, the species was previously known from Belgium (Mosan and Lorr.) on Cladonia coniocraea and C. rangiformis.

110+Epigloea renitens (Grummann) Döbbeler

111Belgium, Mosan: Plombières, parc de l’ancien site minier (E8.52), Armeria-heathland, on piece of hardwood, 4.2001, L. B. Sparrius 4669 (h, hb Diederich).

112Netherlands, Camp.: Budel-Schoot (NB), near former railway station, on rail track (grid-ref. 57-36-33), 10.1999, L. B. Sparrius 3521 (h).

113This non-lichenized fungus was known from Austria and Germany, and possibly also from the British Isles (DÖBBELER, 1984), and is therefore new for the study area.

114(*)Epilichen scabrosus (Ach.) Clem.

115Belgium, Mosan: Plombières, parc de l’ancien site minier (E8.52), Armeria-heathland on zinc-containing slate, on humus rich soil, on Baeomyces rufus, 4.2001, L. Sparrius 4679 (h).

116The specimen is quite reduced, but clearly shows the yellowish lichenized thallus developing over the thallus of Baeomyces rufus. This thallus does not show any orange fluorescence in UV, probably due to its young age. All other characters are typical for E. scabrosus: yellowish, lichenicolous thallus, convex, immarginate ascomata, olivaceous brown epihymenium being K-, a dark olivaceous brown hypothecium, strongly branched and anastomosing paraphyses, asci with a KI+ blue tholus, and brown, 1-septate ascospores of 12-16 × 5.5-7.5 μm. This species differs from the similar, but much rarer E. glauconigellus (Nyl.) Hafellner by the yellowish thallus and the immarginate ascomata.

117This lichenicolous lichen had already been reported from Luxembourg on Baeomyces rufus by KOLTZ (1897: 253), but no relevant specimen has been examined. The presence of the species in the study area is herewith confirmed.

118Fellhanera viridisorediata Aptroot, Brand & Spier

119Belgium, Mar.: NE of Brugge, W of Het Zwin, mixed wood (B2.33), abundant on fallen trunks of Pinus pinaster, 4.2000, P. van den Boom 24246 (h, fertile). – Ard.: Malmedy, vallée du Trô Maret (G8.23), fourrés de Vaccinium sur replats au-dessus de la rivière, 10.2000, E. Sérusiaux s. n. (LG, hb Diederich); Harre, bois de Harre, vallée de l’Ai l’Oiseau (H7.15), branchettes de Picea en bordure d’une prairie de fond de vallée, 10.2000, E. Sérusiaux s. n. (LG); Nadrin, lieu-dit ‘Les Ondes’ (J7.15), lisière très humide d’une plantation de Picea, sur branchettes de Picea, 4.2000, E. Sérusiaux s. n. (LG); Bure, vallée de la Lomme, au lieu-dit ‘Grand Han’ (J6.45), branchettes de Picea en lisière d’une plantation, 1.2001, E. Sérusiaux s. n. (LG); Bohan, boucle de la Semois au NE du lieu-dit ‘Le Châtelet’ (K5.57), lisière fraîche d’une plantation de Picea, sur branchettes de Picea, 7.2001, E. Sérusiaux s. n. (LG); S of Beauraing, Gedine, S of road to Rienne, along ‘Etang Boiron’ (K5.17), on twigs of Picea, 5.2000, P. van den Boom 24357 (h, fertile). – Lorr.: 6.5 km NE of the centre of Virton, 3 km NNE of Ethe, 1.5 km N of the Etang de Laclaireau, forest close to stream (M7.24), on Picea twigs by a stream, 9.2002, P. Diederich 15532 (h) & D. Ertz 2647 (BR).

120This species was known from two Belgian collections only and was considered to be probably overlooked (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 101). Careful search for the species demonstrates that it must be quite common, being most commonly found on Picea twigs at the edges of shaded and humid plantations (where it is frequently found with Fellhanera bouteillei and Fellhaneropsis myrtillicola), and once at the base of Vaccinium shrubs together with Vulpicida pinastri (syn.: Cetraria pinastri) .

121*Intralichen baccisporus D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole

122Belgium, Mar.: au NW de Veurne, vers Sint-Idesbald, Ten Bogaarde Hoeve (C0.57), vieux murs autour de la ferme près du parking, sur briques et mortier, sur Caloplaca citrina, 5.2002, P. Diederich 15242 (h).

123Luxembourg, Lorr: Strassen, Xaviershaff (M8.14), sur un mur vertical d’une vieille ferme, sur C. citrina, 7.1998, P. Diederich 13728 (h).

124Netherlands: Limburg, Maastricht, stadsmuur t. h. v. de Nieuwenhofstraat, vestingmuur van tufkrijt (km blok 61-28-32, 176.3/317.2), on C. citrina, 5.1998, P. Diederich 13640 (h).

125Germany: Bayern, Reg.-Bez. Mittelfranken, Landkreis Neustadt a. d. Aisch, Schloß Hoheneck östlich Ipsheim, am Weg nördlich Bühlberg, 430 m, auf C. flavovirescens, 1.1977, N. Höhne (HBG).

126Austria: Niederösterreich, Lunz am See, Scheiblingstein, 1500-1600 m, auf Kalk, auf C. alociza, 8.1995, R. Türk 20291 (h, hb Diederich).

127This species has just been described from a single specimen from the USA on Caloplaca trachyphylla (HAWKSWORTH & COLE, 2002), and is here newly recorded from Europe, where it could be a common parasite in the hymenium of Caloplaca species.

128*Kalaallia reactiva Alstrup & D. Hawksw.

129Belgium, Ard.: Bovigny, vallée de l’Eau de Ronce (affluent rive gauche de la Salm) (H8.41), sur pierres immergées ou immédiatement au-dessus de la surface de l’eau, sur Ionaspis lacustris, 6.1997, E. Sérusiaux (LG).

130This lichenicolous ascomycete was described from Greenland (ALSTRUP & HAWKSWORTH, 1990) and was recently reported from the British Isles (ORANGE, 2002). It is new for the study area.

131*Lasiosphaeriopsis salisburyi D. Hawksw. & Sivanesan

132Luxembourg, Lorr.: Lamadelaine, Fusboesch (M8.31), sur Peltigera didactyla, 7.2002, D. Ertz 2554, P. Diederich & J. Miadlikowska (BR, specimen with Neolamya peltigerae).

133France, Brab.: Pas-de-Calais, à l’W de Watten, Blockhaus d’Eperlecques (E21.27), sur un gros bloc de béton exposé, sur P. rufescens, 5.2002, P. Diederich 15149 (h).

134Netherlands: Noord-Holland, Heemskerk dune area near Berenweide, on path, on calcareous sandy soil (coord. 103.5/503.5), on P. rufescens, 6.1990, A. Aptroot 26821 (h).

135This lichenicolous ascomycete was described from the British Isles, and was subsequently collected in the Faroes and Spain, always on Peltigera species (MARTÍNEZ & HAFELLNER, 1998). Its recent inclusion in the Dutch checklist (APTROOT et al., 1999) is based on the specimen given above. The species is new for the study area.

136Lecanactis dilleniana (Ach.) Körb.

137Belgium, Ard.: Malmedy, along Warche river (G8.35), boulder in scree, 5.2003, A. Aptroot 57899a (h, hb Diederich).

A remarkable discovery of a rare species, known from Central Europe, the British Isles and Scandinavia. New for the study area.

138Lecanora compallens van Herk & Aptroot

139Belgium, Ard.: Redu, along road to the river Lesse (K6.14), on Tilia along the road, 5.2000, P. van den Boom 24483 (h, LG).

140Luxembourg, Lorr.: Schouweiler, vers Bascharage, à 1,2 km après la sortie du village, le long de la route principale (M8.22), sur Tilia, 9.1999, P. Diederich 13854 (h); au S de Bertrange, route entre Gréivelserhaff et Gréivelser-Barrière (M8.24), sur Tilia, 9.2000, P. Diederich 14397 (h).

141Lecanora compallens is a further species that should turn out to be quite common; as it is always sterile, it is easily overlooked. It was formerly known from few localities in B Mosan and L Lorr. (DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX, 2000: 109).

142Lecanora crenulata Hook.

143Selected specimens examined: Belgium, Mar.: au NW de Veurne, vers Sint-Idesbald, Ten Bogaarde Hoeve, vieux murs autour de la ferme près du parking (C0.57), 5.2002, P. Diederich 15235 (h); au SW de Veurne, à l’W de Bulskamp, St Gustaafmolen (D0.27), 5.2002, P. Diederich 15251 (h). – Brab.: Zwalm, Roborst, church (E3.23), 8.1999, P. Diederich 13929 (h) & M. Hoffmann (with L. dispersella). – Mosan: Han-sur-Lesse, Les Grignaux, W of the Ry d’Ave (J6.34), 5.1997, P. Diederich 12752 (h).

144Luxembourg, Lorr.: Lasauvage, dans le village (M7.48), sur un rocher en tuf calcaire, 9.1999, P. Diederich 13882 (h).

145France, Picard: Somme, à 6 km au NW d’Abbeville, Port-le-Grand, grande ferme fortifiée au centre du village (J22.17), 7.2001, P. Diederich 15400 (h). – Lorr.: Meuse, au SE de Montmédy, Marville, cimetière de St Hilaire (N7.11), 11.2000, P. Diederich 14465 (h).

146DIEDERICH & SÉRUSIAUX (2000: 109) explained that the name Lecanora crenulata is used for two very distinct species. Although we did not examine the type specimen of L. crenulata, we considered that the name should be used for the species with the larger apothecia. No name appeared to be available for the species with smaller apothecia, which we provisionally called ‘L. crenulata auct.’. In some recent papers (e. g., LLIMONA & HLADUN, 2001; NAVARRO-ROSINÉS, 1992: 193-195; NIMIS & POELT, 1987), the species with smaller apothecia is called Lecanora dispersella auct. We propose to follow this choice until a modern revision of the group is available.

147Lecanora dispersella auct., non Steiner

148Syn.: Lecanora crenulata auct., non Hook.

149Selected specimens examined: Belgium, Brab.: Geraardsbergen, Chappel Oudenberg (E3.45), on the wall of a church (calcareous stones, mortar, etc.), 8.1999, Diederich 13913 (h) & M. Hoffmann; Zwalm, Roborst, church (E3.23), on the wall of a church (mortar), 8.1999, P. Diederich 13929 (h) & M. Hoffmann (with L. crenulata).

150Luxembourg, Lorr.: NE Kehlen, cimetière de Schéimerech (L8.54), sur un vieux mur, et sur de vieilles tombes, 9.1997, P. Diederich 12946 (h); Mamer, Tossebierg, près des thermes romains (M8.14), sur un mur, 11.1997, P. Diederich 13448 (h); Larochette, près de la ferme Weydert (L8.27), sur Sorbus domestica, 5.1998, Diederich 13623 (h).

151France, Mar.: Pas-de-Calais, Ambleteuse, Ancien Fort Mahon, face nord, murs près de l’entrée du Fort (E22.35), sur un mur, 8.2000, P. Diederich 14394 & J. Signoret (h).

152Netherlands: Limburg, Bemelen, Bemelerberg (km blok 62-21-23, coord. 182.1/318.1), kalkgrasland met tufkrijtrotsen, 5.1998, P. Diederich 13691 (h); Cadier en Keer, Schiepersberg, Julianagroeve (km blok 62-21-53, coord. 182.7/315.8), sur une roche calcaire dans une carrière, 5.1998, P. Diederich 13647 (h).

153U.S.A.: Nevada, W of Las Vegas, Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, sandstone quarry (36°10’ N, 115°27’ W), alt. 1290 m, on non-calcareous sandstone rocks in an old quarry, 12.1997, P. Diederich 14156 (h).

154See comments under Lecanora crenulata.

To cite this article

Emmanuël SÉRUSIAUX, Paul DIEDERICH, Damien ERTZ & Pieter VAN DEN BOOM, «NEW OR INTERESTING LICHENS AND LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI FROM BELGIUM, LUXEMBOURG AND NORTHERN FRANCE. IX», Lejeunia, Revue de Botanique [En ligne], N°173 (août 2003), URL : https://popups.uliege.be:443/0457-4184/index.php?id=1594.

About: Emmanuël SÉRUSIAUX

Life sciences Dept., University of Liège, Sart Tilman B22, B-4000 Liège, Belgium (E.Serusiaux@ulg.ac.be).

About: Paul DIEDERICH

Musée national d’histoire naturelle, 25 rue Munster, L-2160 Luxembourg, Luxembourg (paul.diederich@education.lu).

About: Damien ERTZ

National Botanical Garden, Domaine de Bouchout, B-1860 Meise, Belgium (damien.ertz@br.fgov.be).

About: Pieter VAN DEN BOOM

Arafura 16, NL-5691 Son, the Netherlands (pvdboom@zonnet.nl).