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Leïla Touati, Tarek Hamel, Amel Meddad-Hamza & Gérard de Bélair

Analysis of rare and endemic flora in northeastern Algeria: the case of the wilaya of Souk Ahras

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Abstract

Scarcity and endemism are considered the most important concepts of a region’s biodiversity and conservation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the models of scarcity and endemism is limited to high biodiversity regions as, for example, the wilaya of Souk Ahras, northeastern Algeria. In this study, we have compiled a list of all heritage species, their taxonomic composition, and geographic distribution. A total of 119 species was documented, and their distribution was as analyzed in the biological environments of two distinct phytogeographic sectors C1 and H2. The rate of scarcity and endemism increased alongside the organic matter richness and, as a result, the forest and pre-forest area supported an over-representation of these species. The preservation of this biodiversity, exceptional and threatened, urgently requires appropriate scientific studies and environmental protection as short term measures.

Keywords : biogeography, conservation, endemism, rarity, Souk Ahras, threat

1. Introduction

1The distribution and abundance of species are key in ecology and biogeography (Huang et al., 2016). The concept of endemism states that a taxon is limited in its distribution to a distinct area, which is the heart of biogeography (Anderson, 1994), and an important criterion for the conservation of biodiversity on a global, national, and local scales (Myers et al., 2000; Riemann & Ezcurra, 2005). Rare plants have great conservation value, either for their heritage or their risk of extinction (Gaston, 1991; Pimm et al., 1998).

2The identification of the vital areas for preserving biodiversity, with high concentration of closely related species (Myers et al., 2000; Médail and Diadema, 2006), becomes a fundamental task for the biogeography conservation (Cañadas et al., 2014; Morrone, 2018). With a richness of 25000 vascular plant species, half of which are endemic and are well adapted to dry periods (Quézel, 1995; Véla and Benhouhou, 2007), among the 34 hotspots in plant diversity on the planet (Myers, 2003), the Mediterranean basin is ranked as the third richest hotspot (Mittermeier et al., 2004), with additional complex geological, biological and cultural character (Blondel et al., 2010).

3Algeria, due to its geographical position, is part of this hotspot with 4449 taxa, 6.5 % of which are endemic (Dobignard and Chatelain, 2010-2013), with a high rarity index. More than three quarters (77.9 %) of the strict endemic taxa of Algeria are rare plants, representing less than a quarter of the total number of plants (Véla and Benhouhou, 2007). Despite being classified as a biodiversity hotspot, several regions of this country are yet to be explored (Benhouhou et al., 2018).

4In order to safeguard the plant biodiversity of these threatened regions, it is imperative to establish benchmarks that describes their biodiversity (Primack et al., 2012), by updating the taxonomic nomenclature of the Algerian flora (Amirouche and Misset, 2009). This can be carried out with collaboration between scientists and amateurs, active field work, and taxonomic problem solving (Domina et al., 2015).

5Work on rare and endemic flora in Algeria has been excessively confined to its geography (Hamel et al., 2013; Zedam, 2015; Miara et al., 2017, 2018; Mansouri et al., 2018; Djebbouri and Terras, 2019; Gordo and Hadjadj-Aoul, 2019). Furthermore, the touchstone study on endemic and/or rare plants in Algeria by Véla and Benhouhou (2007) was based on old data from the flora of Quézel and Santa (1962–1963).

It is in this context that the current work is rooted, proposing an inventory and an update on the rare and endemic flora present in the wilaya (or department) of Souk Ahras. Thereby, here we suggest a starting point for new conservation projects and research on local flora.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Study area

6The wilaya of Souk Ahras, located in the extreme northeast of Algeria, is limited in the north and west by the wilayas of El Tarf and Guelma, southwest by the wilaya of Oum el Bouaghi,

7southeast by the wilaya of Tebessa, and in the east by Tunisia (Figure. 1). This region is part of the 11th regional biodiversity hotspot in the Mediterranean, called “Kabylias–Numidia–Kroumiria” (Véla and Benhouhou, 2007), and covers the Important Plant Area (IPA) called “El Kala 2” (Yahi et al., 2012; Benhouhou et al., 2018).

Image 10000000000004620000031A7E712041F0DC1835.jpg

Figure 1: Geographical location of the study sites

8Two heterogeneous sets determined the geomorphological configuration of this wilaya: the north (C1) was represented by mountains and forests and made up of 12 municipalities, with a total area of 1880 km2, characterized by a humid and subhumid bioclimates, with an average rainfall of 730 mm/year; the south (H2) made up of high plains and pastures encompassing 14 municipalities, covering an area of 2480 km2, and characterized by a semi-arid bioclimate, with an average rainfall of 350 mm/year (Hamaidia and Berchi, 2018).

9The average daily temperature varied according to the seasons (from 10 °C in January to
47 °C in August). Average monthly temperatures were 15 °C in January and 35 °C in July (CONM, 1990-2020). In this wilaya, the wooded area amounted to 82,375 ha. It comprised of two definite parts separated by the Medjerda wadi: to the north the cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and zeen oak (Quercus canariensis Willd.), and to the south the Pinus halepensis Mill. (Boudy, 1955). The ecosystems were similar as those of the rest of Numidia (forests, maquis, humid environments, and lawns), except for the coast and the dune compounds (see de Bélair et al., 2005).

2.2 Methodology

2.2.1 Floristic study

10The list of rare and endemic species was established according to a systematic sampling, from 2017 to 2020, from floristic surveys. This data collection was carried out at the level of forests of zeen oak (Quercus canariensis Willd.), cork oak (Quercus suber L.), matorrals of Pistacia lentiscus L., Olea europaea L., rocky areas, water bodies, neighboring lawns, and steppes (Macrochloa tenacissima (L.) Kunth and Artemisia herba-alba Asso), according to the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet et al. (1952).

11At the level of each site, ecological parameters were studied, namely the specific richness of rare and endemic species, altitude, and precipitation (see Table 1).

Table 1: The coordinates of the sampled stations

Code

Sites

GPS coordinates

Biogeographic sector

(Quézel and Santa)

(1962-1963)

Type of vegetation

Precipitation (mm/year)

(CONM, 1990-2020)

Altitude

(m)

Bioclimate

(CONM, 1990-2020)

R1

Ain senour

36°19'25"N ; 7°52'30"E

C1

Lawn

945

843

Humid

R2

Ain Talhi

36°20'22"N ; 7°51'40"E

C1

Matorral

945

853

Humid

R3

Ain Trab

36°21'53"N ; 8° 7'59"E

C1

Humid environment

884

902

Humid

R4

Ain Zena

36°24'02"N ; 8°11'28"E

C1

Matorral

842

1155

Humid

R5

Ben Attia

36°01’31"N ; 8°06’38"E

H2

Steppe

266

517

Semi-arid

R6

Djebel Mcid

36°23'56"N ; 8°3'28" E

C1

Matorral

972

1383

Humid

R7

Hannecha

36°13′1″N ; 7°49′60″ E

C1

Matorral

712

847

Sub-humid

R8

Pool of Ain Zena

36°24′2″N ; 8°11′28″E

C1

Humid environment

837

839

Humid

R9

Mazeraa

36°23'7"N ; 7°53'13"E

C1

Zeen oak forest

1124

925

Humid

R10

Machroha

36°21′26″N ; 7°50′8″ E

C1

Cork oak forest

935

733

Humid

R11

Merahna

36°12'8"N ; 8°9'31" E

H2

Steppe

280

551

Semi-arid

R12

Oued Medjarda

37°07′12"N ; 10°3′27"E

H2

Humid environment

730

570

Sub-humid

R13

Ouled Bechih

36°20'21"N ; 7°52'19"E

C1

Cork oak forest

955

822

Humid

R14

Tarja

36°17'25"N ; 8°03'01"E

H2

Matorral

782

1150

Sub-humid

R15

Sedrata

36°7'51"N ; 7°31'57"E

H2

Steppe

370

797

Semi-arid

R16

Tiffech

36°11'30"N ; 7°47'10"E

H2

Lawn

416

972

Sub-humid

R17

Majen Matlag

36°25'40"N ; 7°55'45"E

C1

Humid environment

701

692

Humid

R18

M'daourouche

36°04'29"N ; 7°49'11"E

H2

Steppe

330

753

Semi-arid

12The taxa were identified according to the flora of Battandier (1888­–1890), Battandier and Trabut (1895), Maire (1952–1987), Quézel and Santa (1962–1963), Pignatti (1982), and ; Blanca et al. (2009). The nomenclature has been updated according to the synonymic index of North Africa (Dobignard and Chatelain, 2010–2013) and the African Plant Database (APD, 2020). The rarity of taxa was in referrence to the flora of Quézel and Santa (1962–1963) and according to our observations in the field, namely the following statuses: rare (R) and very rare (RR) for non-endemic taxa. For endemic taxa, the classification was as follows: common (C), fairly common (FC), and fairly rare (FR).

13The biological types (Raunkiaer, 1934) of the different taxa has been assigned based on Pignatti (1982), Blanca et al. (2009) and, for some endemics, according to Quézel and Santa (1962-1963).

14Chorological characterization was carried out based in the flora of Andalusia (Blanca et al., 2009), whereas the eight endemic sub-elements followed the flora of Italia (Pignatti, 1982) and the synonymic index of Dobignard and Chatelain (2010–2013).

15Threats and protection status

16The characterization of the on-site threatened species was carried out based on the criteria of rarity by Quézel & Santa (1962-1963), criteria of vulnerability on a global scale by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature in 1997 (Walter & Gillett, 1998), and according to the current red list available (IUCN, 2021). The red list makes it possible to highlight the taxa at the highest risk of extinction and defines the priorities in policies to safeguard and conserve the plant biodiversity. We also considered species with heritage interest protected by Decree No. 03–12 / 12–28, in addition to the non-cultivated plant species protected in Algeria (JORA, 2012) and the synonymic index of North Africa (Dobignard and Chatelain, 2010–2013).

3.1 Scarcity

17Of the 119 species recorded in the study region, nine taxa were quite rare, 55 taxa were rare, 13 taxa were very rare (Table 2), and 14 taxa were rather rare endemics. Indeed, the species observed in the study region seldom had the same heritage value. Additionally, 33 taxa were both endemic and rare (e.g. Bunium crassifolium, Convolvulus durandoi, Dactylorhiza elata, Ophrys subfusca subsp. battandieri). Such relationship between scarcity and endemism was noticeable in our studied flora. Our list includes 28 taxa widely distributed in the national territory (e.g., Anarrhinum pedatum, Stachys duriaei, Bellevalia mauritanica, Rupicapnos numidica), 40 rare to very rare Mediterranean taxa (sensu lato), three rare paleotemperate taxa, and one rare Eurasian taxon.

18Table 2: List of heritage species with their features in the wilaya of Souk Ahras

Taxa

Family

Biological types

Chorological types

Locality

Habitat

Scarcity

Achillea ligustica All.

Asteraceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

VR

Allium porrum subsp. polyanthum (Schult. & Schult. f.) Jauzein & J.-M. Tison

Amaryllidaceae

Geo

Eury-Mediterranean

Ben Attia, Tiffech

Steppe, lawn

R*

Althaea hirsuta L.

Malvaceae

Th

Eury-Mediterranean

Ain senour

lawn

R

Ambrosina bassii L.

Araceae

Geo

Subend. Tyrrhenian

Mazeraa, Ouled Bechih

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest

C

Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich.

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Ain Talhi

Matorral

R*

Anarrhinum pedatum Desf.

Plantaginaceae

Hem

End. Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Zena

Cliff

C

Antirrhinum tortuosum Bo ex Vent.

Plantaginaceae

Ch

Mediterranean

Ain Zena, Hannecha

Cliff, matorral

R

Arabis pubescens (Desf.) Poir. subsp. pubescens

Brassicaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Zena

Zeen oak forest

FC

Arenaria cerastioides Poir.

Caryophyllaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Zena

Zeen oak forest

FC

Argyrolobium saharae Pomel

Fabaceae

Ch

End Alg-Mor-Egy

Ben Attia

Steppe

R

Aristolochia paucinervis Pomel

Aristolochiaceae

Geo

Subend. Tyrrhenian

Ain Trab

Humid environment

R

Armeria choulettiana Pomel

Plumbaginaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Talhi

Matorral

FR

Barnardia numidica (Poir.) Speta

Asparagaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Lib

Mazeraa, Ouled Bechih, Ain Zena

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest, cliff

C

Bellevalia mauritanica Pomel

Asparagaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Mor-Lib-Egy

Tarja

Matorral

FC

Biscutella raphanifolia Poir.

Brassicaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Itl

Ain Talhi, Tiffech

Matorral, lawn

FR

Brassica procumbens (Poir.) O.E. Schulz

Brassicaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun

Ain Talhi, Ain Zena, Ben Attia, Ouled Bechih, Mazeraa

Matorral, cliff, steppe, cork oak forest, zeen oak forest

C

Bunium crassifolium (Batt.) Batt.

Apiaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Machrouha, Ain Zena

Cork oak forest, cliff

R

Cachrys libanotis L.

Apiaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Hannecha

Matorral

R

Calamintha menthifolia Host.

Lamiaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Mazeraa

Humid environment

R

Calendula suffruticosa subsp. boissieri Lanza

Asteraceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Hannecha, Ain Zena

Matorral, cliff

R

Cardopatium amethystinum Spach

Asteraceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun

Merahna

Steppe

FR

Castanea sativa Mill.

Fagaceae

Ph

Mediterranean

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

VR

Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carrière

Pinaceae

Ph

End Alg-Mor

Djebel Mcid

Matorral

FC

Centaurea involucrata Desf.

Asteraceae

Th

End Alg-Mor

Ben Attia

Steppe

FR*

Centaurea solstitialis subsp. schouwii (DC.) Gugler

Asteraceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Itl

Tiffech

Lawn

VR

Chaerophyllum temulum L.

Apiaceae

Hem

Eurasian

Majen Matlag

Humid environment

R

Convolvulus durandoi Pomel

Convolvulaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Ain Talhi, Ain zena

Matorral, cliff

R

Cosentinia vellea (Aiton) Tod. subsp. vellea

Sinopteridaceae

Hem

Eury-Mediterranean

Ain Zena

Cliff

R*

Cyclamen africanum Boiss. & Reut.

Primulaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mazeraa, Mechrouha, Ouled Bechih, Ain Zena

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest, cliff

C

Cynosurus polybracteatus Poir.

Poaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

C

Dactylorhiza elata (Poir.) Soó

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Ain Trab

Humid environment

R

Daucus gracilis Steinh.

Apiaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mechrouha, Ain Zena

Cork oak forest, cliff

FR

Daucus virgatus (Poir.) Maire

Apiaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun

Ain senour, Ain Zena

Matorral, cliff

R

Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu subsp. scoparia

Apiaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor-Lib-Mau

Ben Attia, Merahna

Steppe

C

Diatelia tuberaria (L.) Demoly

Cistaceae

Ch

Mediterranean

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

R

Drimia anthericoides (Poir.) Véla & De Bélair

Asparagaceae

Geo

End Alg

Ain Talhi

Matorral

R*

Drimia numidica (Jord. & Fourr.) J.C. Manning & Goldblatt

Asparagaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Spa

Ain Talhi, Ain senour, Mechroha, Mazeraa, Mare Ain Zena, Ain Zena, Tarja, Djebel Mcid, Ouled Bechih, Ain Trab, Majen Matlag

Matorral, lawn, Zeen oak forest, cliff, humid environment, cork oak forest

C

Ebenus pinnata Aiton

Fabaceae

Hem

End-Alg-Tun-Mor-Lib

Tarja, Tiffech, Ben Attia, Sedrata, M'daourouche

Matorral, steppe

C

Echinops bovei Boiss.

Asteraceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Talhi, Ain Zena, Tiffech

Matorral, cliff, lawn

C

Eryngium pusillum L.

Apiaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Mare Ain Zena, Majen Matlag

Humid environment

R

Euphorbia cuneifolia Guss.

Euphorbiaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun-Itl

Majen Matlag

Humid environment

FR

Galactites mutabilis Durieu

Asteraceae

Th

End Alg-Tun

Ain senour, Ain Talhi, Mechroha, Ain zena, Tarja, Ouled Bechih, Tiffech

Matorral, lawn, cliff, cork oak forest, Zeen oak forest

FR

Genista ferox (Poir.) Dum. Cours. subsp. ferox

Fabaceae

Ph

End Alg-Tun-Itl

Ain Talhi, Mechroha, Tarja, Ain Zena, Ouled Bechih, Mazeraa

Matorral, cork oak forest, cliff, Zeen oak forest

C

Genista tricuspidata Desf. subsp. tricuspidata

Fabaceae

Ph

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

C

Genista ulicina Spach

Fabaceae

Ph

End Alg-Tun

Ain Talhi, Mechrouha, Ouled Bechih, Ain Zena, Djebel Mcid

Matorral, cork oak forest, cliff

FR

Geranium atlanticum Boiss.

Geraniaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Djebel Mcid

Matorral

C

Geranium columbinum L.

Geraniaceae

Th

Paleotemperate

Majen Matlag

Humid environment

R

Geranium dissectum L.

Geraniaceae

Th

Paleotemperate

Majen Matlag, Ain Trab

Humid environment

R

Hedera algeriensis Hibberd

Araliaceae

Ph

End Alg-Tun

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

C

Helosciadium crassipes W.J. Koch

Apiaceae

Hydr

Mediterranean

Mare Ain Zena, Ain Trab, Majen Matlag

Humid environment

VR

Hertia cheirifolia (L.) Kuntze

Asteraceae

Ph

End Alg-Tun

Ben Attia, Merahna, Sedrata, M'daourouche

Steppe

C

Hippocrepis atlantica Ball

Fabaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Zena

Cliff

C

Hyacinthoides lingulata (Poir.) Rothm.

Asparagaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mechrouha, Mazeraa

Cork oak forest, Zeen oak forest

C

Hypericum androsaemum L.

Hypericaceae

Ch

Paleotemperate

Mazeraa, Ouled Bechih

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest

R

Hypericum montanum L.

Hypericaceae

Hem

Eury-Mediterranean

Djebel Mcid, Ouled Bechih

Matorral, cork oak forest

R

Illecebrum verticillatum L.

Caryophyllaceae

Th

Mediterranean

Mare Ain Zena

Humid environment

VR

Iris unguicularis Poir.

Iridaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Mechrouha, Mazeraa

Cork oak forest, zeen oak forest

C

Jonopsidium albiflorum Durieu

Brassicaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun-Itl

Djebel Mcid, Tarja

Matorral

R

Juncus heterophyllus Dufour

Juncaceae

Hydr

Mediterranean

Mare Ain Zena, Majen Matlag

Humid environment

R

Lathyrus latifolius subsp. algericus (Ginzb.) Dobignard

Fabaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ain Talhi

Matorral

R*

Lepidium rigidum Pomel

Brassicaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun

Ain senour

Lawn

FC

Linaria virgata subsp. algeriensis Murb.

Plantaginaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun

Sedrata

Steppe

C

Linum corymbiferum Desf. subsp. corymbiferum

Linaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

C

Linum tenue Desf. subsp. tenue

Linaceae

Th

End. Alg-Mar-Spa

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

R

Lithospermum tenuiflorum L. f.

Boraginaceae

Ch

Mediterranean

Tarja

Matorral

R

Lonchophora capiomontana Durieu

Brassicaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun-Lib

Sedrata

Steppe

FC

Mandragora officinarum L.

Solanaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Ben Attia

Steppe

R

Moricandia suffruticosa (Desf.) Coss. & Durieu

Brassicaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ben Attia

Steppe

C

Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC.

Haloragaceae

Hydr

Mediterranean-Atlantic

Majen Matlag

Humid environment

R

Neotinea maculata (Desf.) Stearn

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean -Atlantic

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

R

Oenanthe virgata Poir.

Apiaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mare Ain Zena, Oued Medjarda, Majen Matlag

Humid environment

C

Ononis angustissima subsp. polyclada Murb.

Fabaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun-Mar

Ben Attia

Steppe

FC

Ononis aragonensis Asso

Fabaceae

Ph

Ibero-maghrebian

Sedrata

Steppe

VR

Ophioglossum lusitanicum L.

Ophioglossaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Mechrouha, Djebel Mcid

Cork oak forest, matorral

R

Ophrys ×joannae Maire

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Ain Talhi

Matorral

VR*

Ophrys atlantica Munby subsp. atlantica

Orchidaceae

Geo

Ibero-maghrebian

Sedrata

Steppe

FR

Ophrys atlantica subsp. hayekii (H. Fleischm. ex Soó) Soó

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Sedrata

Steppe

R

Ophrys iricolor Desf. subsp. iricolor

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Ain Talhi, Mechrouha

Matorral, cork oak forest

R*

Ophrys marmorata subsp. caesiella (P. Delforge) Véla

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Hannecha, Mechrouha

Matorral, cork oak forest

R*

Ophrys numida Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Ain Talhi, Hannecha, Ain senour

Matorral, lawn

R*

Ophrys subfusca subsp. battandieri (E.G. Camus) Kreutz

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Hannecha, Ain senour

Lawn, matorral

R

Orchis anthropophora (L.) All.

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean-Atlantic

Tarja

Matorral

R*

Orchis laeta Steinh.

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Ain Talhi

Matorral

VR*

Orchis patens Desf. subsp. patens

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun-Itl

Ain Talhi

Matorral

VR*

Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum (Desf.) Ietsw.

Lamiaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun

Djebel Mcid, Hannecha, Ain Zena

Matorral, cliff

C

Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.

Orobanchaceae

Geo

Eury-Mediterranean

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

VR

Phlomis bovei de Noé

Lamiaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mar

Hannecha

Matorral

R

Phlomis herba-venti subsp. pungens (Willd.) Maire ex De Filipps

Lamiaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Hannecha, Ain Zena

Matorral, cliff

R

Pilularia minuta Durieu

Marsileaceae

Hydr

Mediterranean

Majen Matlag

Humid environment

VR

Pistacia atlantica Desf.

Anacardiaceae

Ph

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ben Attia, Sedrata

Steppe

FC

Plagius grandis (L.) Alavi & Heywood

Asteraceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun

Ain senour, Tiffech, Ain Zena

Lawn, cliff

C

Plagius maghrebinus Vogt & Greuter

Asteraceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mazeraa, Mechrouha, Oued Medjarda, Majen Matlag

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest, humid environment

C

Psychine stylosa Desf.

Brassicaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ben Attia, Sedrata

Steppe

FC

Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. aleae (Willk.) Rouy & Foucaud

Ranunculaceae

Th

Mediterranean

Majen Matlag

Humid environment

R

Reichardia tingitana subsp. discolor (Pomel) Jahand. & Maire

Asteraceae

Th

Mediterranean

Ben Attia

Steppe

R

Rhaponticum acaule (L.) DC.

Asteraceae

Hem

Subend. Tyrrhenian

Ain senour, Tiffech

Lawn

C

Romulea ligustica Parl.

Iridaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Ain Talhi, Mare Ain Zena, Ain Zena, Ouled Bechih, Djebel Mcid

Matorral, humid environment, cliff, cork oak forest

R

Rosmarinus eriocalyx Jord. & Fourr. subsp. eriocalyx

Lamiaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun

Hannecha

Matorral

R

Rupicapnos numidica (Coss. & Durieu) Pomel

Papaveraceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun

Ain Zena

Cliff

FC

Sambucus ebulus L.

Adoxaceae

Hem

Eury-Mediterranean

Ain Trab, Oued Medjarda

Humid environment

R

Sambucus nigra L.

Adoxaceae

Ph

Eury-Mediterranean

Oued Medjarda

Humid environment

R

Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr.

Asteraceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Ben Attia, Merahna, M'daourouche

Steppe

FC

Scrophularia tenuipes Coss. & Durieu ex Coss.

Scrophulariaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

R

Scutellaria columnae All. subsp. columnae

Lamiaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

R

Sedum cepaea L.

Crassulaceae

Th

Mediterranean-Atlantic

Mazeraa, Ouled Bechih

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest

R

Sedum pubescens Vahl

Crassulaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun

Tarja

Matorral

FC

Serapias lingua L. subsp. lingua

Orchidaceae

Geo

Mediterranean

Ain Talhi, Mare Ain Zena

Humid environment

R*

Serapias stenopetala Maire & T. Stephenson

Orchidaceae

Geo

End Alg-Tun

Mare Ain Zena

Humid environment

VR*

Sideritis incana L. subsp. incana

Lamiaceae

Ch

Mediterranean

Ben Attia,

M'daourouche

Steppe

R*

Sinapis pubescens subsp. indurata (Coss.) Batt.

Brassicaceae

Hem

End Alg

Ain Zena, Hannecha, Djebel Mcid

Cliff, matorral

R

Smyrnium perfoliatum L.

Apiaceae

Hem

Eury-Mediterranean

Mazeraa

Zeen oak forest

R

Stachys duriaei de Noé

Lamiaceae

Th

End Alg-Tun

Hannecha, Ain Zena

Matorral, cliff

FC

Teucrium atratum Pomel

Lamiaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

R

Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut.

Lamiaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Hannecha, Ain Zena, Ben Attia, Djebel Mcid, M'daourouche, Ain senour, Tiffech

Matorral, cliff, lawn, steppe

C

Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Boiss. & Reut.) Greuter & Burdet

Lamiaceae

Ch

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Mecherouha, Ouled Bechih, Ain Zena

Cork oak forest, cliff

C

Veronica montana L.

Plantaginaceae

Hem

European

Pool of Ain Zena

Humid environment

VR

Vinca major L.

Apocynaceae

Ch

Mediterranean

Mechrouha

Cork oak forest

R*

Viola munbyana Boiss. & Reut.

Violaceae

Hem

End Alg-Tun-Mor

Djebel Mcid

Matorral

FC

Viola riviniana Reich.

Violaceae

Hem

Mediterranean

Mezeraa, Mechrouha

Zeen oak forest, cork oak forest

R

19End: Endemic, Subend: Subendemic Alg: Algeria; Tun: Tunisia; Mor: Morocco; Lib: Libya; Egy: Egypt; Maur: Mauritania; Itl: Italy; Spa: Spain; Bio. T: biological type; Th: Therophyte; Hem: Hemicryptophyte; Ch: Chamaephyte; Geo: Geophyte; Ph: Phanerophyte; Hydr: Hydrophyte; C: common; F: fairly; R: rare; VR: very rare; (*) modified rarity.

20Of all the taxa studied, ten were threatened or near-threatened as registered on the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2021), while 13 species were protected by Executive Decree No. 12-03 in Algeria (J.O.R.A, 2012) (see Table 3)

Table 3: List of species protected according to Executive Decree n° 12-03 (JORA, 2012) and/ or evaluated according to IUCN (2021)

Taxa

JORA (2012)

IUCN (2021)

Argyrolobium saharae Pomel

P

Bunium crassifolium (Batt.) Batt.

P

Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carrière ex Manetti

P

EN

Convolvulus durandoi Pomel

P

NT

Cyclamen africanum Boiss. & Reut.

P

Dactylorhiza elata (Poir.) Soó

NT

Drimia anthericoides (Poir.) Véla & de Bélair

EN

Illecebrum verticillatum L.

P

Juncus heterophyllus Dufour

NT

Mandragora officinarum L.

P

Ononis aragonensis Asso

P

Orchis laeta Steinh.

NT

Orchis patens Desf. subsp. patens

P

Phlomis bovei de Noé

P

Pilularia minuta Durieu

EN

Pistacia atlantica Desf.

P

NT

Scrophularia tenuipes Coss. & Durieu ex Coss.

P

NT

Serapias stenopetala Maire & T. Stephenson

CR

Teucrium atratum Pomel

P

21P: protected, NT: near-threatened, EN: endangered, CR: critically endangered.

3.2 Biogeographic distribution

We have identified three biogeographic sets in the studied flora:

3.2.1 The Mediterranean set

This set included 39 species (32.77 %) of the flora listed, 27 for the Mediterranean element (sensu stricto), eight for the Eury-Mediterranean connecting element, and four for the Atlantic-Mediterranean connecting element. In this set, the richest families were the Orchidaceae family, with seven taxa, and the Apiaceae and Lamiaceae, with four taxa for each.

3.2.2 Nordic set

This set was represented by three paleotemperate taxa (Hypericum androsaemum, Geranium dissectum and Geranium columbinum), one Eurasian taxon (Chaerophyllum temulum) and one Europaen taxon (Veronica montana L.).

3.2.3 Endemic set

This set was the most important group of the studied flora, with 75 (63.02 %) species. The existent 26 families were of endemic taxa, including the Asteraceae (11 endemics), followed by the Fabaceae and Brassicaceae (nine endemics each). The genus Ophrys was the most diverse with four taxa, followed by the genus Genista with three taxa.

These species belonged to eight sub-elements of endemism:

  • Endemic to Algeria: Two taxa strictly endemic to Algeria were identified in our list (Drimia anthericoides and Sinapis pubescens subsp. indurata);

  • Algerian–Tunisian endemics: The number of Algerian–Tunisian endemic taxa was the highest among all the groups, with 27 species or 36 % of the endemic flora of the region. This number was noteworthy for a region situated at the Tunisian borders;

  • Algerian–Moroccan endemics: This element was composed of two taxa (Cedrus atlantica and Centaurea involucrata);

  • Endemic to Algeria, Tunisia and Italy: Six endemic taxa were noted in Algeria–Tunisia and extending to Italy (Biscutella raphanifolia, Jonopsidium albiflorum, Orchis patens subsp. patens, Euphorbia cuneifolia, Centaurea solstitialis subsp. schouwii, and Genista ferox subsp. ferox);

  • Ibero–Maghrebian: This group had two species (Ononis aragonensis and Ophrys atlantica subsp. atlantica);

  • Endemic to North Africa: The number of taxa in this group was appreciable, with 31 species or 41.33% of the endemic flora of the region. These taxa were often found in at least three countries of North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Libya) and sometimes extended to Egypt and Mauritania;

  • Tyrrhenian sub-endemics: Here, three taxa were shared between Numidia, Kroumiria, and the Corso-Sardinian block and/or the Tyrrhenian island group;

  • Betico-Maghrebian endemics (Algeria, Tunisia and Spain or Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were represented by a single taxon.

3.3 Biological distribution

22According to the global list of recorded species, the composition of the biological spectrum showed that the hemicryptophytes, with their 38 taxa (31.93 %), were predominant over other life forms. Geophytes were fairly well represented with 30 species (25.21 %), followed by therophytes, chamaephytes and phanerophytes, with 20 (16.8 %), 17 (14.28 %) and 10 (8.40 %) species respectively. Hydrophytes were poorly represented with only four species (3.36 %).

23The even biological distribution between species was also observed in the identified biogeographic elements, except for the four hydrophytic taxa which were typically Mediterranean.

3.4 Distribution of rare and endemic species according to habitat types

24Matorrals, humid environments, and cork oak forests were the richest in rare species (more than 15 species each), while lawns were the poorest with only seven species.

25Matorral showed most frequent endemism, including 31 taxa, followed closely by cliff ecosystems with 22 taxa. Zeen oak forests, steppes, and cork–oak forests were in an intermediate situation (respectively 14, 17, and 18 species). While, lawns and wetlands were the poorest in endemics (11 and seven species respectively).

26From a bioclimatic point of view, rare and endemic taxa were found in the three bioclimatic stages of the study region, from humid to semi-arid.

3.5 The influence of environmental and edaphic variables on the richness of rare and endemic plants

Image 10000201000003D5000001F2CC2A94B2A1A3DD28.png

Image 10000201000003D9000001E9DFED210C760C9780.png

Image 10000201000003D3000001EA0DC7FDF389F2E520.png

Figure 2: Correlations between the richness in rare and endemic species of the studied localities (black dots), (a) organic matter; (b) electrical conductivity; (c) precipitation; (d) altitude; (e) pH; (f) total limestone

27Among all the studied sites, no significant regressions were observed between specific richness and topographic (altitude), climatic (precipitation), and edaphic variables (pH, electrical conductivity, total limestone, and organic matter). Two variables were significant, namely organic matter (R² = 0.6101; p = 0.0001) and the electrical conductivity (R² = 0.4103; p = 0.0041) (Fig. 2 a & b). Other variables do not seem to influence the floristic composition hence the distribution of rare and endemic plants (Fig. 2 c, d, e & f).

4. Discussion

4.1 Characterization of the flora

The rare and very rare flora of the study area had 119 taxa, i.e. 16.03 % of the flora of the Souk Ahras region, based on 742 species according to the current state of our research (Hamel, Véla & de Bélair, unpublished).

This first inventory of rare and endemic plants in the region of Souk Ahras highlighted the main aspects of this flora (changes in nomenclature, distribution, and type of endemism). Local researchers sometimes tend to neglect these aspects, however they should be considered as a priority in scientific research (Rao, 2004), towards the conservation of the local flora (Véla and Benhouhou, 2007). We observed some introduced individuals of Cedrus atlantica, heighting between 10 to 15 m and particularly present in the humid belt (the summit of Djebel Mcid, altitude 1380 m), and its natural regeneration was ensured by the presence of small plants. The palynological work of Benslama et al. (2010) in the El Kala region (northeast of Algeria) hypothesizes the existence of cedar regional refugium in a relatively mild climate during the last glaciation, collateral to the hypotheses formulated by Terrab et al. (2006). Its presence would have benefited the glacial refugia, further east of its current range in Algeria and Tunisia, from which it disappeared following the contraction during the Holocene (Ben Tiba and Reille, 1982).

The large number of rare and endemic species recorded in the study region have been particularly identified in forest and pre-forest formations (matorrals, cork oak, and zeen oak forests). This richness in taxa accounts for the variability of biogeographical and ecological situations in connection with anthropogenic actions (Barbéro et al., 2001; Yahi et al., 2008).

Quézel (2000) confirmed the richness in endemic species or taxa, which grew on cliffs and rocks, with its disjunct area. Our observations, at an ecological level, concerning the site conditions involving rare and endemic species, were overall in agreement with Quézel and Santa (1962–1963).

The observed plants were very unevenly distributed in the two biogeographical sectors (Quézel and Santa, 1962) of the study region. The Constantine sector (C1) had the highest number of rare and endemic plants (99 species), while the subsector of the highlands of Constantine (H2) was home to 27 high–value taxa. In fact, fluctuations in ecological conditions and the heterogeneity of habitats are determining factors of flora richness of these biogeographical zones (Touati et al., 2020).

Some species of C1 and H2 were not reported previously in “The flora of Algeria”, e.g., Antirrhinum tortuosum, Argyrolobium saharae, Aristolochia paucinervis, Bunium crassifolium, Calamintha menthifolia, Castanea sativa, Chaerophyllum temulum, Daucus virgatus, Galactites mutabilis, Genista ulicina, Heliosciadium crassipes, Mandragora officinarum, Ononis angustissima subsp. polyclada, Ophrys atlantica subsp. hayekii, Orchis laeta, Orchis patens subsp. patens, Phlomis bovei, Pilularia minuta, Reichardia tingitana subsp. discolor, Scrophularia tenuipes, Smyrnium perfoliatum, Teucrium atratum, Veronica montana and Viola riviniana. All these new observations in the two biogeographical sectors of the region encouraged us to carry out a meticulous search for taxa, which might have escaped in previous investigations, as in the case of the 16 taxa illustrated by Edough Peninsula of Boulemtafes et al. (2018) and the study of Pteris vittata L. in February 2016 in Western Numidia (Hamel et al., 2020a). In a more global context, the presence of these plants in other biogeographical sectors suggested the requirement of a revision of the Algerian flora (cf. eflora Maghreb).

Other rare and endemic taxa, such as Euphorbia helioscopia subsp. helioscopioides (Loscos & C. Pardo) Nyman and Odontites discolor Pomel, were found in our region. They seem to have previously disappeared or declined in the same habitat (Battandier and Trabut, 1890; Maire, 1928; Quézel and Santa, 1963). In some cases, natural environments have been so disrupted by other elements, such as fires, overgrazing, and urban development, that some sites were destroyed Considering the established uncertainity, additional surveys could be carried out in the future.

Mandragora officinarum, defined as rare and endangered in Quézel and Santa (1962), has been exclusive to the Kabylias-Numidia sector (K) and the Algerian coastal sub-sector (A1) (site not found until now) (see Hanifi et al., 2007). We have observed it on the steppes of Ben Attia, which seems very rare and new for the subsector H2 of the Constantine highlands (Touati et al., 2020).

We have noticed that endemism status of some taxa had been changing, such as for Genista ferox subsp. ferox, previously mentioned as strictly endemic to the Maghreb by Quézel and Santa (1962) and recently retained as endemic in Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Sardinia by CJB (2020). This is the case of Aristolochia paucinervis, previously mentioned in the flora of Quézel and Santa (1962-1963) as Mediterranean, while APD (2020) considers this as a Tyrrhenian subendemic. The changes in the chorological type of these species can be explained by the increased botanical investigations, either in the Mediterranean or in North Africa. Such investigations aim at listing biodiversity and monitor its evolution, either expanding the floristic lists by adding taxa or narrowing them by removing others (Gordo and Hadjadj-Aoul, 2019).

4.2 Taxonomic, biological and biogeographic diversity

28A total of 119 remarkable taxa (endemic, rare, threatened, or protected) of angiosperms and pteridophytes were reported in our study sites. All these listed species are factors of a great conservation value, either for heritage reasons or for their risk of extinction (Pimm et al., 1988; Gaston et al., 1998).

29The highest degree of endemicity corresponds to Asteraceae (11 taxa), Brassicaceae (nine taxa), Fabaceae (nine taxa), Orchidaceae (eight taxa) and Lamiaceae (seven taxa). These results corroborate the conclusions by Le Houérou (1995), who stated that the Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae are the richest families in endemics in North Africa, and by Quézel (1978) regarding the Lamiaceae family. The richness of the local flora in Orchids in the study area confirmed the observations made by Boukehili et al. (2018). This resemblance is the result of their common history from which resulted a very homogeneous biogeographical unit (Quézel, 1964).

30The relative number of endemic taxa sensu lato presented in this work was 63.05%. However, it is comparably very high to that stated by Hamel et al. (2013) for the Edough peninsula (47%), Djebbouri and Terras (2019) for the forest formations of Saïda (North-West Algeria) (08.81%), Medjahdi et al. (2009) for the Traras mountains (19.71%) and Miara et al. (2017) for the Tiaret region (38%). This richness was the result of climate diversity, exposures, substrates, and orography with a mountain range, which culminates at 1405 m (Djebel Mcid), 1230m (Saïda),1008m (Edough) and875m (Tarras). As stated by Verlaque et al. (1997), the Mediterranean endemism is mainly concentrated in mountain ranges and islands.

31We have identified two restricted endemic species (endemic to Algeria). These taxa were both rare and endemic “taxa classified as of high heritage value”, Drimia anthericoides was on the red list of the IUCN (Véla and de Bélair, 2017), as “endangered”. These are:

32- Drimia anthericoides: endemic to northeastern Algeria seemed to be a new species rank to the national flora (Véla et al., 2016). It is a critical taxon considered as a variety of Urginea maritima (L.) Baker (Maire, 1958; Quézel and Santa, 1962). Nevertheless, it differs from other aggregate species/varieties of Charybdis maritima (L.) Speta [= Urginea maritima] in terms of characters of flowers, fruits, bulbs, leaves, and by ploidy level (Véla et al., 2016). A review of the sites on the Tunisian side would still be beneficial in order to verify any past confusion. However, the observation site is on private land, thus potentially threatened by agriculture and/or grazing.

33- Sinapis pubescens subsp. indurata: the diversity of the genus Sinapis in Algeria is remarkable with eight species and subspecies, of which two are endemics (S. pubescens subsp. aristidis and subsp. indurata) (Dobignard and Chatelain, 2011). This taxon has been previously reported in Souk Ahras in three different localities: Mont Mahrouf by H. de Perraudière (without specifying a date?) and by Reboud (without date?) in Sgao and Djebel Mcid (Maire, 1965). We have consulted all the plates of APD (2020) labeled “Sinapis pubescens subsp. indurata” of which three plates “MPU009015, MPU009016 and S-G-9038” collected by H. de Perraudière (7/16/1861) related to our species.

34The Algerian–Tunisian endemism represented the majority of endemic taxa recorded with 27 species. However, these border endemics correspond less to specialized areas with highly endemic species, than to the vast biogeographical zones, where endemic species are locally less rare and even abundant (Véla and Benhouhou, 2007; Hamel et al., 2013).

35Our study area had 26 endemic species from Northwest Africa, with at least three countries (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and/or Libya).

36The presence of Tyrrhenian endemics in the flora studied (three taxa) could explain the past terrestrial connections of the Algerian Tellian and Tunisian coast with Tyrrhenia (Quézel, 1964; Hamel and Boulemtafes, 2017; Hamel et al., 2020b). The importance of the Mediterranean (sensu lato) element of the rare flora in the study area (40 species, or 31.61 %) was in agreement with Quézel (1983), who found a greater number of Mediterranean-type species (40.13 %) in the North African flora.

37Two plants were classified as flagship species in the Algerian (IPA), called "El Kala 2": Scrophularia tenuipes and Scutellaria columnae. These two plants, along with Convolvulus durandoi, Orchis laeta, Phlomis bovei, and Drimia anthericoides, are found in a restricted area (occurrence between 100 and 5,000 km²). Additionally, Dactylorhiza elata and Serapias stenopetala, two restricted endemic species were found in less than 100 km² (Yahi et al., 2012).

38Some plants, including the strict endemic Sinapis pubescens subsp. indurata, which are rare nationally but locally common, exist in the study area. In general, this rarity is due to the limited extent of the subhumid climate in Algeria.

39The studied flora was dominated by hemicryptophytes (31.09 %), which prefer fairly stable environments and soil rich in organic matter (Kazi Tani et al., 2010). This suggested that the rainfall, the weakness of the light, and the pastures of the undergrowth favored the development of hemicryptophytes. Barbéro et al. (2001) reported that their abundance in Maghreb countries is due to the presence of organic matter and moisture. In addition, the dominance of hemicryptophytes has also been confirmed in the rare and endemic flora of the Edough Peninsula (Hamel et al., 2013). Geophytes were also well represented with 30 species. Their rate is relatively higher in a forest environment than in lawns and steppe areas where they tend to fade (Barbéro et al., 1981). Chamaephytes were represented by 20 species or 16.8 % of the studied flora. They would be well adapted to the phenomenon of soil aridification as they can develop variants to drought (Floret et al., 1990). On the other hand, in certain regions, the encrusted soils are thin and the continuous calcareous crust which covers them does not allow any plant rooting (Boudjadja et al., 2010). Gamoun et al. (2011) claim that sandy soil is more productive due to increased water impermeability than limestone soil, which reduces water penetration.

4.3. Threats and conservation measures

40Due to insufficient documentation and studies, 109 of the rare and endemic plants in our study area and elsewhere in Algeria have not been yet assessed, according to the criteria established by IUCN (2021). Protection is urgent to a total of 106 rare and endemic species. Without it, they are threatened with extinction, especially since they are not placed on the list of protected plant species in Algeria (JORA, 2012).

41The rare and endemic flora of the Souk Ahras region is undergoing an alarming degradation. Additionally, anthropogenic activities, especially fires, overgrazing, and uncontrolled exploitation of species known for their therapeutic virtues (e.g. Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum, Thymus algeriensis, Rosmarinus eriocalyx subsp. eriocalyx, Mandragora officinarum, Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus, Deverra scoparia subsp. scoparia, and Santolina africana) stand as threats to this flora. Other taxa are heavily consumed (Allium porrum subsp. polyanthum, Bunium crassifolium, Echinops bovei, Rhaponticum acaule, and Romulea ligustica) or used as ornamentals (e.g. Hedera algeriensis, Sambucus nigra, Iris inguicularis, and Cyclamen africanum) (see Sakhraoui, 2021).

Based on our study we propose the main short-term conservation solutions below:

- Habitat protection, including populations of threatened species where conservation problems are most critical (Cedrus atlantica, Drimia anthericoides, Pilularia minuta, and Serapias stenopetala) by creating “micro-reserves”, thus providing sustainable conservation and leading to a representative natural habitat (Laguna et al., 2004).

- Modeling the distribution of each species for its reintroduction into its natural habitat or into new suitable areas, according to the species distribution models.

- Revise and update the list of protected plant species in Algeria according to the criteria of endemism, rarity, and threats, as both rare and endemic species have high conservation value.

5. Conclusion

Our analysis based on the current knowledge of the rare and endemic flora of the wilaya of Souk Ahras revealed a significant specific richness (119 species), characterized by 75 endemic species and 77 rare species. This regional endemic flora is hardly known as a large area of the study region and remains very poorly explored. The entire area located at the Algerian–Tunisian border, the steppes of Macrochloa tenacissima (L.) Kunth, and Artemisia herba-alba Asso, located in the south of the region, deserve to be thoroughly explored. Likewise, the relationship between scarcity and endemism was remarkable. Half endemic taxa in a broad sense were rare and listed on the protected plant species in Algeria, while the majority (more than a hundred) are not protected. Hence, it is necessary to protect these species in accordance to endemicity and rarity.

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121Declaration of Competing Interest

122No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

123ORCID : https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9770-6805

Appendix A

Some rare and endemic species from the wilaya of Souk Ahras

(All the photos: Hamel T., except the photo A.5: de Bélair G.).

Image 10000201000002F4000001BE616E3467E44FC623.png

Image 10000201000002ED000001B5653C48B152BAB38A.png

Image 10000201000002E7000001E8E7E7457381965FBB.png

Image 10000201000002EC000001E2BA1FC376DD9EDC12.png

Image 10000201000002EF000001EFF1B4C58B9BC1F8A7.png

Image 10000201000002EC000001F382DA1F00A4C08D45.png

Image 10000201000002F4000001E6C2A5FFAA529D37A5.png

Image 10000201000002F6000001F01F766920FBF56B53.png

A.1. Serapias stenopetala Maire & T. Stephenson

A.9. Sideritis incana L. subsp. incana

A.2. Dactylorhiza elata (Poir.) Soo

A.10. Argyrolobium saharae Pomel

A.3. Mandragora officinarum L.

A.11. Orchis laeta Steinh

A.4. Sinapis pubescens L. subsp. indurata (Coss.) Batt

A.12. Calendula suffruticosa subsp. boissieri Lanza

A.5. Drimia anthericoides (Poir.) Véla & De Bélair

A.13. Scutellaria columnae All. subsp. columnae

A.6. Aristolochia paucinervis Pomel.

A.14. Convolvulus durandoi Pome

A.7. Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr.

A.15. Chaerophyllum temulum L.

A.8. Ononis angustissima subsp. polyclada Murb.

A.16. Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.

To cite this article

Leïla Touati, Tarek Hamel, Amel Meddad-Hamza & Gérard de Bélair, «Analysis of rare and endemic flora in northeastern Algeria: the case of the wilaya of Souk Ahras», Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège [En ligne], Volume 90 - Année 2021, Articles, 213 - 240 URL : https://popups.uliege.be/0037-9565/index.php?id=10514.

About: Leïla Touati

Laboratory of Environmental Biosurveillance, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba 23000, Algeria, l.touati@univ-soukahras.dz

About: Tarek Hamel

Laboratory of Plant Biology and Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba 23000, Algeria.

About: Amel Meddad-Hamza

Laboratory of Environmental Biosurveillance, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba 23000, Algeria.

About: Gérard de Bélair

Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba 23000, Algeria.